Revised February 24, 2020; August 15, 2020; major revision October 21, 201
It is imperative to learn the correct Dhamma from an Ariya to attain the Sōtapanna stage (one of the four requirements). See, “Four Conditions for Attaining Sōtapanna Magga/Phala.” We will discuss an analogy for the Sōtapanna stage in that regard. We will briefly discuss Sabbāsava Sutta to show the importance of removing wrong views to get to the Sōtapanna stage.
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Upaḍḍha Sutta (SN 45.2) – Need to Know the Correct Buddha Dhamma From a Noble Friend
1. According to the “Upaḍḍha Sutta (SN 45.2)” once, Ven. Ananda told the Buddha that he thinks half (“upaḍḍhamidaṁ..”) of the factors contributing someone getting to Nibbāna (by completing the brahmacariya) can be attributed to association with a Noble Friend (kalyāṇamittā.) Here, “kalyāṇa” means to “help remove defilements,” and “mittā” is a friend.
- But the Buddha explains that not just half, but the FULL contribution (“sakalamevidaṁ..”) comes from a kalyāṇamittatā. Of course, the Buddha is the best kalyāṇamittā.
- The reason is clear. Buddha Dhamma is never known to the world until discovered by a Buddha. An average human can learn about it ONLY from a Buddha or a true disciple of a Buddha who has also understood that Dhamma.
- However, the guidance is REQUIRED only to understand this “new worldview” that has never been known to the world. That means once getting to the Sotapanna stage, a human would understand the Eightfold Noble Path and how to follow it to get to the Arahanthood.
- That is why getting to the Sotapanna stage is the same as getting to lokottara Samma Ditthi, not just mundane Samma Ditthi. Mundane Samma Ditthi would enable one to live a “moral life.” In contrast, lokottara Samma Ditthi enables one to attain Nibbāna. See, “
- Just by understanding the “new worldview,” a large number of defilements (āsava/anusaya) are removed from the mind and that is referred to as “dassanā pahātabbā” (removal with vision) in the Sabbasava Sutta (see below.)
- We can use the following mundane analogy to help explain the above idea.
An Analogy for Sammā Diṭṭhi (attaining the Sōtapanna Stage)
2. Suppose a man (X) lives in an area usually full of sense pleasures. But there are occasional flooding, droughts, and also Earthquakes. When such calamities occur, he gets distraught, and thus, his mind is not at ease most of the time.
- Yet, he has accumulated some wealth, and he believes that “everything will be OK” in the long run in the back of his mind.
3. Then, one day, an old friend (who has been on travel for many years) comes back and tells him that the reason he left was to find a better place to live. The friend says that he did some research and found out that this land is inherently unstable, and within several years, an Earthquake will destroy this area.
- Furthermore, he says that he found a very prosperous place and that there are no worries about flooding, drought, or Earthquakes. But it is a long journey to that place.
4. X tells the friend that he had heard about such beautiful places from other people before. He had followed them at times, but every time came back after trekking for some time because he could not see any benefit. Plus, he says, “how do I know what you say is right? I know that everything is not perfect here, but can you show evidence for your theory that there will be a big Earthquake? Also, how can I believe you that this place you found is so wonderful?”
5. The friend shows him all the evidence that he had gathered why this area is unsuitable for living in the long run. He also shows evidence about the prosperity of the new place and also describes the travel path.
- The evidence is compelling, and X decides to follow the friend’s advice and see what happens. That is analogous to becoming a Sōtapanna Magga Anugāmi.
6. X spends a lot of time reading about and contemplating all the evidence. Then he begins to realize that what the friend is saying is true. He decides to take an exploratory trip and makes suitable preparations, as suggested by the friend.
- Once in a while, he wonders whether all these preparations will be a waste of time. But as he keeps on assessing the evidence, he becomes more and more convinced that he needs to take that trip.
7. Then X starts on the trip and is encouraged by seeing some “landmarks” that the friend told him. Even though once in a while he thinks about all the “pleasures” he could have had if he stayed home, these “landmarks” encourage him to go further and then reaches one of the four “major stopovers” that the friend mentioned.
- At a certain point on the way, he becomes fully convinced about his friend’s conclusions. Now there is no going back for him. That is like getting to the Sōtapanna stage.
The Way to the Sōtapanna Stage
8. The key here is that without knowing about the Buddha’s world view (31 realms of existence and the suffering in the four lower realms, see “The Grand Unified Theory of Dhamma“), one does not comprehend the “saṃsāric suffering.” Most suffering incurs when one is born in any of the four lowest realms. That is important because it is possible that (especially young and wealthy people) may not experience that much physical and mental suffering. And to have faith in the Buddha’s worldview, one needs to spend some time examining the evidence for it.
9. When one sees why it is not fruitful to stay in “this world” of 31 realms, they have understood the true nature, the three characteristics anicca, dukkha, anatta, of “this world.”
- Sammā Diṭṭhi is the realization that there is nothing “substantial” to be had by staying in “this world.” This clear vision concludes that there is no point in doing immoral things (those that cause rebirth in the four lower realms).
10. We strive to gain or own “things” in this world because we perceive that we can achieve happiness eventually; this is sakkāya diṭṭhi or sathkāya diṭṭhi (both “Sakka” and “sath” mean “good” or fruitful, and “kāya” means “kriyā” or actions. Diṭṭhi means views. Thus, sakkāya diṭṭhi is our wrong idea that our efforts to acquire “things” or “seek happiness” are beneficial and fruitful.
- When one truly understands anicca, dukkha, anatta, this wrong view goes away. One realizes that nothing we do can lead to permanent happiness “in this world.”
11. Furthermore, for one who has seen anicca, dukkha, anatta, the mind does not allow serious wrongdoings (vici+ ki+iccha = liking for wrong actions or things) that could lead to birth in the lower four realms.
- There is no doubt regarding the “world vision” that they realized. Thus vicikicchā, or the liking (mindset) for unfruitful and harmful actions, is removed at the Sōtapanna stage.
12. Therefore, one needs to contemplate the true nature of the world. It is done by purifying the mind and cannot be done just by following certain rituals, such as just obeying precepts on certain days.
- Thus the idea of “sīlabbata parāmāsa” or “Nibbāna can be attained by following rituals” goes away at the Sōtapanna stage. One realizes what the Buddha said by “saṃvaraṭṭhena sīlaṃ.“
- Unbreakable “sīla” (or moral behavior) comes with the correct vision/view. That will be automatically monitored at ALL TIMES, not by “observing precepts” for a day or several days.
13. For one who has become “dassanā sampanno” (one with clear vision), the mindset changes not by following formal procedures. The change of perspective comes by understanding the futility of breaking any precepts or wrongdoings. Even if one does a wrong act, he would immediately realize it and avoid it in the future.
14. This is not to discourage people from observing precepts as a formality. Even mechanically observing those precepts is good to do. It is also a good habit to instill in children. It is customary in Buddhist countries for whole families to go to the temple and observe “pañca sīla” (five precepts) or “aṭṭhaṅgika sīla” (eight precepts) on Poya (Full Moon) days.
Key Points from the Sabbāsava Sutta (MN 2)
15. The key to attaining Nibbāna is to remove the āsavā (residue from the fermentation of immoral thoughts/habits over many saṃsāric births). In the Sabbāsava Sutta, the Buddha listed seven steps to remove the āsavā and to purify the mind, thus paving the way to Nibbāna. The seven steps are:
- Removal by clear vision (“dassanā pahātabbā,” where dassana is vision and pahātabbā is removal). That is a clear understanding of anicca, dukkha, anatta.
- Removal by the restrained use of the sense faculties (“saṃvarā pahātabbā,” where saṃvara is the disciplined use of the sense faculties: not to over-indulge in the senses).
- Removal by good associations (“paṭisevanā pahātabbā,” where sevana is an association: for example, with good friends and good deeds).
- Removal by tolerance and patience (“adhivāsanā pahātabbā“). For example, even if tempted to steal because one is hungry, one should contemplate the consequences of stealing. There are ways to earn a living.
- Removal by staying clear of “bad influences and environments” (“parivajjanā pahātabbā“). One needs to avoid bad friends, unwise locations for a living (due to floods, bad neighbors, etc.), avoid inappropriate times to go out, etc.
- Removal by getting rid of certain things (“vinodanā pahātabbā“). One needs to get rid of immoral thoughts that come to mind, such as excessive sensory pleasure, hate, etc.
- Removal by meditation (“bhāvanā pahātabbā“). When one has a clear vision in #1, it becomes apparent what to contemplate.
Clear vision is the first on the list. One should not undertake a journey without knowing the reason for the journey. Furthermore, one needs to understand how to get to the destination.
- In the same way, having a clear vision of the Buddha’s worldview is a prerequisite for starting on the Noble Path. What is Nibbāna and how to get there? See, “Paṭicca Samuppāda, Tilakkhana, Four Noble Truths.”
- There are four types of āsavā: kāmāsava (craving for sense pleasures), diṭṭhāsava (cravings due to wrong views), bhavāsava (craving for existence), and avijjāsava (cravings due to ignorance).
16. A Sōtapanna removes the diṭṭhāsava through clear vision. Once one understood the true nature of “this world” by contemplating anicca, dukkha, anatta, one would not commit any immoral acts to gain anything in “this world.” See, “Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta.” That alone saves one from future rebirths in the lower four realms.
- A Sōtapanna still has the other three āsavā left. Those are removed mainly by the meditation on the Satta Bojjhaṅga (seven Bojjhaṅga.)
- After attaining the Sōtapanna stage, one sees the Path to Nibbāna (and how to MEDITATE to get to Nibbāna.) That is “bhāvanā pahātabbā” in #7 above. Then he diligently follows the Path and reaches the following three stages, culminating in Nibbāna.
- As one can see, the other five steps (#2 through #6) listed in the Sabbāsava Sutta are common sense things to do AT ANY TIME. They make sense at any stage. Anyone can use those steps to enhance the quality of life and remove any bad habits—for example, alcohol/ drug use or even overeating can be bad for health.
A Sotapanna Knows “What to Meditate On”
17. Many people start “meditating” even before understanding “what to meditate on.” Of course, if one is doing “breath meditation,” there is nothing to learn. It is an insult to the Buddha. Buddha’s meditations help one to stop future suffering from arising. For that, one must first realize the unfruitfulness/danger in remaining in this world (via the rebirth process.) See, “Paṭicca Samuppāda, Tilakkhana, Four Noble Truths.”
- The Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta covers all seven steps in #15 above in a somewhat different fashion. The correct Anapānasati bhāvanā (not the breath meditation version) covers those in a general way.
- As stated in the “Ānāpānassati Sutta (MN 118)“: “Evaṁ bhāvitā kho, bhikkhave, ānāpānassati evaṁ bahulīkatā cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti” or “Bhikkhus, that is how ānāpānassati, developed and cultivated, fulfills cattāro satipaṭṭhāna.”
- Can “breath meditation” fulfill the Satipaṭṭhāna Bhāvanā? One needs to be a Sotapanna to properly cultivate Ānāpānassati or Satipaṭṭhāna Bhāvanā (i.e., to have optimum results.)