Revised December 1, 2017
Some people try to attain Nibbānic bliss by trying to “give up all attachment to this world” in their minds during meditation. However, until one’s mind truly realizes the dangers of this world (the rebirth process), the mind is unable to give up those attachments.
- One has to attain at least the Sōtapanna stage by “seeing the true nature of this world” before one’s mindset becomes amenable to “giving up”. This is the hardest part to understand.
- Even before that one needs to get rid the 10 types of miccā ditthi as discussed below.
1. During the time of the Buddha there was a bhikkhu named Pōtila, who was well-versed with deep Dhamma concepts and was a well known teacher; he had developed abhinna powers as well, but had not attained even the Sōtapanna stage. His dēsanas (discourses) were deep and only those at the Anāgāmi stage (at least Sōtapanna stage) could follow them and get to Arahanthood. One day he went to see the Buddha, paid respects, and told the Buddha that he had been a Dhamma teacher during the times of several earlier Buddhas too, and helped many to attain Nibbāna (Arahantship).
- The Buddha asked him whether he has attained any magga phala and Bhikkhu Pōtila admitted that he had not. The Buddha just commented: ”Thucca Pōtila” and turned his attention to other matters; thucca (pronounced “thuchcha”) in Pāli and Sinhala means despicable or “lowly”.
2. So, bhikkhu Pōtila, who had expected praise from the Buddha for helping others, realized that he needs to work on his own salvation before helping others. He strived by himself and could not make any progress; he was trying very hard to “give up all attachments”, following the same instructions he was giving others. But no matter how hard he tried, he could not succeed.
- When he sought help from other bhikkhus, they were reluctant to become his teacher because everyone knew he was very knowledgeable in Dhamma. Eventually, he went to this very young Arahant, who was well-known for his teaching abilities, and sought help. The young Arahant agreed to help, only if bhikkhu Pōtila agreed to carry out everything as instructed, and Pōtila agreed.
- The young Arahant decided to use an unusual kammatthana (instructions). He took Pōtila to a large area covered by mud, and asked him to wade into the mud and keep going until told to stop. Pōtila started wading in mud and kept going until he was told to stop when the mud was all the way up to his chin; he was barely able to move at this point because mud was heavy.
3. The Arahant told him that, “if someone is stuck in mud like that any knowledge about cleaning oneself by taking a bath is not going to help. One needs to get out of the mud first”.
- Then he asked Pōtila to come back. Pōtila had great difficulty in moving forward initially, since he was all the way up to the chin in thick and heavy mud. While dragging himself out of the mud with great difficulty, Pōtila realized what the young Arahant was talking about. It is not possible to get out of mud until one realizes that one is stuck there, and getting out of mud required sheer will power. Similarly, he had not realized that he was stuck at a much lower moral level; he needed to cleanse his mind first.
- The “giving up” part comes with a mind that has removed the wrong visions (miccā ditthi) and also excessive greed for sensual pleasures. These cannot be removed just by reading or listening about that.
- Of course one can remove some of it by reading, listening, and contemplating on the validity of the reasons that the Buddha has given, especially on miccā ditthi. One has to realize that kamma (or one’s actions) are likely to have their results either in this life or the next, and thus the rebirth process must be valid. Remaining types of miccā ditthi are also related to kamma and rebirth. The 10 types of miccā ditthi are discussed in “Micca Ditthi, Gandhabba, and Sotapanna Stage”.
- The second level of removal of miccā ditthi comes via comprehending anicca, dukkha, anatta; ; see, “Micca Ditthi, Gandhabba, and Sotapanna Stage”.
5. The simile can be made even better by looking at what happens to ants who get stuck in honey. Here unlike mud, the sense pleasures are appealing and there is no incentive to get out either. Those ants who get stuck in honey, would not even try to get out because they are too busy enjoying the honey. Even when they are barely stuck, and can move out of honey, they would not because they like the taste of honey. Just like that, any living being, whether a human or even the lowly worm, likes to indulge in the sense pleasures, and thus gets stuck.
- And even when one realizes that one needs to get out of “the honey pot” it is hard, at least initially.
- For that one needs to see the perils of staying in this rebirth process, where birth in lower four realms will lead to unimaginable suffering. Even if one can strive to be born in higher realms, that will not last long. This is “anicca“: no matter how hard we try to find refuge in the 31 realms it is not possible to do so in the long run.
6. With much effort, Pōtila slowly made his way up to the waist level, and started feeling the lightness of being free of mud. He could now move faster too. He felt the relief when he was out of the mud, and was asked to go and take a shower. Now, cleaning up with soap could be done; but while stuck in mud, there was no use of soap and water. Just like that the deep Dhamma that he had memorized was of no use to him while he was still stuck in mud.
- Eventually, when one comes out the mud that is like the Sōtapanna level. One is still covered with mud, i.e., one still likes to enjoy sense pleasure. But now one KNOWS that one needs to take a shower, use soap and shampoo, and remove all that mud.
7. What Pōtila was doing was to give discourses on deep Dhamma that could help an Anāgāmi attain the Arahanthood. Most of those who benefited from bhikkhu Pōtila’s discourses were, ironically, Anagamis. Pōtila was just reciting the Dhamma without real comprehension but those who benefited were capable of comprehending the true meanings. After that kammatthana, Pōtila was able to attain the Sōtapanna stage and soon became an Arahant.
(By the way, one cannot attain the Sōtapanna stage by taking instructions from an Anariya, i.e., one who had not attained at least the Sōtapanna stage. But once one attains the Sōtapanna stage, one can learn by himself or from anyone else and get to the higher stages. This is why it was only Sotapannas or above (mostly Anagamis) who could benefit from bhikkhu Pōtila’s discourses).
- I believe this actual incident involving bhikkhu Pōtila highlights a very important point. No matter how much one reads on deep concepts of Dhamma, it is hard to get the idea to sink in unless one’s mind is purified to a certain extent. It is critical first to break through the heavy fog of being covered by many wrong concepts and strong attachments. When one breaks through that initial “wall of resistance”, then it is easier to comprehend deeper concepts; see “Lōbha, Dōsa, Mōha versus Raga, Patigha, Avijja“.
8. One needs to make progress in a systematic way. Just like it is not possible to learn high school math without learning basic addition/subtraction, one MUST understand the basic concepts first. If one is engaged in killing, stealing, sexual misbehavior, lying, gossiping, getting “drunk” with alcohol, drugs, power, beauty, money, etc, it is not possible to calm the mind to a basic level. And this is the hard part. One is stuck in mud (more like honey, because it feels good to be stuck there).
- And while stuck in mud (or honey), no matter how much meditation one does, it is not possible to get LONG TERM relief. One may be able to go to a meditation retreat and be away from all those “honey-filled” attractions and enjoy some sense of calmness; but that goes away soon after coming back to “real life” with all those temptations.
- One needs to slowly work one’s way through the mud (or honey, because that is how it seems initially first). This is the HARDEST part. No matter how much one READS, that is not going to make much difference until one sets up the stage for the mind to see the reality.
- By the way, this is also why those who meditate on “there is no self” (there is no ‘me’) cannot make any progress either. One needs to comprehend the “pointlessness in striving to accumulate material things for oneself” first. If one could tell a full blown lie, hurt someone else, sexually misbehave, etc, then isn’t that done to gain something for “me”?
9. Here is a rough step-by-step I would recommend (this is of course not for everyone; just for those who know they are stuck in honey):
A. If one is hurting others to get sense pleasures, that should be stopped first. It is double jeopardy; one is not only “getting stuck” due to excess greed, but also going to suffer consequences of harming others. One is not only getting attached to “pleasurable things” but also accumulating bad kamma by hurting others.
- For example, if one is killing animals for fun (sport), stealing valuables from others, having sexual relationships with other married people or young children, planning to hurt someone (even for retaliation), or spreading rumors about someone just to get some pleasure out of it, getting drunk and verbally/physically abusing others, all those would be included here.
- Such immoral activities are the worst, and are called “pāpa kamma”. Both lōbha and dōsa (dvēsha) are involved here and one’s mind is said to totally covered with ignorance (mōha); see, “Lōbha, Dōsa, Mōha versus Raga, Patigha, Avijja“.
- Thus someone in this stage is deeply in mud all the way up to the chin.
B. One notch lower is being capable to do things (of course not always) with EXTREME greed, even if it does not hurt others directly; here one is only up to waist to shoulder level in mud. These are normally the things one does to seek “perceived happiness” by going to extremes.
- When one cannot get “high enough” with alcohol one tends to try drugs, because one has been “de-sensitized”. We all know of many movies stars etc. who get into this trend and end up committing suicide because nothing at the end can bring more pleasure to a highly “de-sensitized” mind.
- Another indication of extreme behavior is living beyond one’s means. This is of course relative. If one is living a small (but comfortable) house and wants to move in to a bigger house just for the sake of that by stretching one’s resources, that is a sign of extreme greed. If one is already living in a mansion that one has inherited or earned, and there is no financial burden, then there is nothing wrong with that since that will not burden the mind. However, in general, the more fancier the item is, whether a house or a car or anything else, it normally takes more time and effort to “maintain”, and inevitably there is a degree of attachment because of the perceived value.
- Such extreme greed could also lead to actions of hate, when someone else gets in the way. Then one may do “pāpa kamma” here as well; it is possible that actions of hate gets one to the higher level.
It is not possible to discuss all possibilities, but one should be able to figure out many such cases. No one else can decide these for anyone. Only each person knows about one’s own status of mind. However, any sensible person can make some kind of a judgement for oneself, but not for others.
C. If one is at stage A or B above, one should read those posts in the “Fundamentals and Moral Living” section. It could be helpful to go back and read those as one makes progress, and see that one understands more things than previously. This is hard to explain, but is true. A clear mind sees things much more easily.
- For those who are in stage A or B should read posts #1 through #3 below first.
D. Once one gets to the B stage, one should start reading the posts on the “Key Dhamma Concepts” and in particular learn and comprehend anicca, dukkha, anatta.
This is the real key step, to get started on the next stage. Once one gets some traction, there is nothing there to hold back someone from attaining the Sōtapanna stage. It had been hard for hundreds of years only because the correct concepts were hidden. Once one gets some traction, one can start doing any of the bhāvanā.
- As Carl Sagan said, “..think about all those emperors and kings who committed unmentionable atrocities just to have a sense of superiority and power for maybe 50 years. They are all gone”; see, “The Pale Blue Dot……..“. Even though Dr. Sagan did not know, that is another way to state what anicca is.
- All those emperors and kings will be stuck in the animal or lower realms for billions of years to come. On the other hand, a peasant who lived within his/her means and led a moral life could be living in a dēva/brahma realm for billions of years.
- The main point here is that there is no point in trying to seek sense pleasures or accumulate wealth for 80-100 years maximum, because at the end we will not be able to KEEP ANYTHING to our satisfaction. We may have a billion dollars, but if our bodies are worn out, will we be able to get ANY sense pleasures? Will we be able to keep any part of our bodies to our satisfaction? Many people try to “beat the aging process” by using temporary fixes such as botox, but any such effect will also will be temporary.
- It is not possible to really grasp the meaning of anicca, dukkha, anatta, if one is stuck in mud or honey.
E. When one comes out of the mud and start walking (with mud on the body), that is like the Sōtapanna stage. Now one does not even need anyone’s help, even though that can help expedite the process; one can figure things out by oneself.
- There are many who know many suttas by heart or abhidhamma concepts, but nowhere close to the Sōtapanna stage.
- We need to understand that Buddha Dhamma is not about JUST LEARNING concepts (even though learning plays a big part), it is all about using what is learned for purifying the mind. As the mind becomes clear, one will start seeing the reality better. In the Buddha’s days, illiterate people were able learn Dhamma just by listening, and even attained Arahanthood.
E. The final stage is to realize that even birth in such deva/brahma worlds will be temporary. At some point in the future, they are all going to commit some bad deed and end up in the four lower realms for long times; that is just the nature of this world, where sense pleasures can lure anyone to commit bad actions. But there is no point in talking about that stage, until one gets above the A and B stages, and become a Sōtapanna.
F. The series of posts that I am writing on the Satipatthāna Sutta goes through this process too, from stage A. Therefore, it may be a good idea to read those posts from the beginning as well. The first introductory posts are full of Pāli words, but just go through them briefly even if you do not fully understand. They WILL become clear later, if not now.
- When one starts following the Path, one is bound to break the trend once in a while. A child learning to walk will fall many times. Many people get discouraged when they do an immoral act occasionally; but just to realize that one did a mistake, and that it bothers one’s mind, means one HAS MADE PROGRESS. That is why one needs to have the perseverance to get back up with a renewed determination. Just like a child WILL learn to walk, one WILL get better with time.
G. Of course I do not know the level of each person coming to the website. Only each person knows where he/she is relative to the above steps.
- If one truly can purify one’s mind and comprehend anicca, dukkha, anatta, that is all it takes to attain the Sōtapanna stage.
- There is material ranging from the basic level to very advanced levels and even more will be posted in the future. This is for the sake of completeness, and also to make sure that any scholar or interested person can gauge the depth of Buddha’s true teachings.
- There are also people who really start comprehending Dhamma and start enjoying finding about further details; no other type of “pleasure activity” can match the “enjoyment of Dhamma”. Buddha Dhamma is the ultimate “book of nature”.
- Furthermore, reading widely on different topics will help build sadhhā (faith), which is NOT blind faith but faith built on understanding. When one sees how little modern science knows in comparison to the Buddha, it helps build faith. And paññā (wisdom) and sadhhā grow together.
Next, “1. Introduction to Buddhist Meditation“, ……….