2. The Basics in Meditation

The top 10 posts in this section describe a way of using meditation in following the Noble Path and to attain the Sotapanna stage of Nibbana. The rest of the posts in this section are on possible meditation subjects and together with other posts at the site can be used to clarify unresolved questions, and to gain samadhi. It is recommended that the first 11 posts be followed in that order, at least initially.

1. Those who are doing breath meditation or “watching the stomach rise and fall” know that it is relatively easy for some to calm the mind compared to others. Some cannot even keep a calm mind for more than few minutes; things start “popping up” in the mind.

  • This “popping up” is due to the five hindrances (panca nīvarana) that I have described in a post. These are the basic “residues” or “gunk” that we have deep inside our minds that start bubbling up to the surface when we sit down to meditate.

2. Let us take the simile of a water well that is contaminated with all the rotten stuff that have fallen into it over many years; our minds have accumulated gunk over repeated births, not just in this life. When we are engaged in stressful day-to-day activities, those activities stir up the ‘gunk” and the mind gets clouded; it is like taking a long pole and stirring the well water; the “gunk” at the bottom come up.

  • The two basic “rotten things” we have are the first two on the list of the five hindrances: kammaccanda (excessive greed) and vyāpada (deep hate).
  • Vicikiccā is a set of person “likings”, and these can be likings for material things OR things that one likes to “hate”; one does these because of the ignorance of anicca, dukkha, anatta. Vicikiccā is sort of like a “favorite list” from the main ingredients of excessive greed and deep hate, the first two hindrances. Kanka vicikiccā is a worse form of vicikiccā that arises due to wanton disregard of correct views.
  • The other two are more like “stirrers”, that stir up these bad habits and bring them up on their own: tina middha (“trapped” or “frozen” mind), uddhacca-kukkucca (tendency of the mind to be scattered; an excited mind).
  • Tina middha or inability to concentrate on dhamma concepts can be enhanced after a meal, but it can be a personal characteristic or a habit; we will call this the “lazy mind”. An “unsettled” or “excited” mind (uddhacca-kukkucca) is also personal, and arises when one feels “superior” or “inferior” compared to others: it must be noted that a “shrunk mind” associated with inferiority is not to be confused with an “unassuming character”.
  • The five hindrances are discussed in detail in the Moral Living section.

3. When we are engaged in day-to-day activities, we see, hear,smell, taste, touch, and also think about all sorts of things; all these are “external stirrers” that really make our minds look like whirlpools. All these gang up to get the mind to stress out and “heat up”. This is the tension that we feel in a busy day. We need to “cool down”; we need “niveema”.

  • one way to “cool down” is to turn off those external stirrers temporarily. This is what some people do in a breath meditation session: one goes to a quiet place and closes eyes; this will turn off mainly the five physical senses (i.e., we do not see, hear, smell, taste, touch). This really helps to calm the mind for some people, especially if they have practiced a lot.
  • But it is not possible to turn off the sixth one, the mind itself. This is why it is instructed to try to fix the mind on one object, say the breath or the rising of the stomach.
  • Actually, some people try to “turn off the mind”, or try to stop thoughts from arising. This is DANGEROUS. We need to PURIFY the mind, not to turn it off. The Buddha had the perfectly pure, but very active mind. When one follows the Path, one’s mind will become sharper, not inactive.

4. However, if we have too much gunk in our minds, then our thoughts will be contaminated even without the aid of a stirrer. It is like an old well that had been abandoned. It has dirty water, and one needs to REMOVE the existing dirty water first.

  • Similarly, if one is engaged in immoral behavior (the BIG EIGHT: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, gossiping, slandering, harsh speech, and getting “drunk” with not only drugs or alcohol, but also with wealth, fame, power, etc), then the mind is like a well that has dirty water to begin with. Even if stays undisturbed, the water cannot get any cleaner by sitting in a quiet place and turning off the physical senses.

5. Thus it would be hard to even to achieve calmness with breath meditation if one is actively engaged in the BIG EIGHT (unless one has had a lot of practice, but even then the calmness lasts only until the focus is held).

  • This is basically kayanupassana, the first step in Satipatthana; see, “Satipatthana – Introduction“.
  • Therefore, if someone is engaged in one or more of those eight activities, the first thing to do is to try to get rid of them. First start with the worst, and proceed gradually until all are removed. It is like emptying the well of the dirty water.
  • This is a BIG STEP. It may take a little while, depending on how much cleaning to be done. But one thing is not to rush out and try to do much. That could be stressful too. The best thing to do is to abstain from one or two big ones, and experience the “cooling down” that results from it.
  • Vain talk is a habit that should be gotten rid of early. It does not do any good to oneself or the others. It is inevitable that one will say something inappropriate (possibly slandering, and lying too, which are also in the BIG EIGHT) when one gets carried away during vain talk. Getting rid of it will help with being able to calm the mind quickly.
  • The mind needs to see the benefits of doing something before it really gets on board. This is why initially it may take a lot of determination to stick with the plan.
  • It is important NOT to get used to the breath meditation; if you are used to it, I would urge you to gradually stop and try the procedures described here at least for a couple of months. We want LONG TERM results, and there are many people who get addicted to breath meditation to get temporary relief. THAT IS A MISTAKE.

6. Getting rid of bad old habits and installing new good habits is a KEY in the meditation practice; we will talk about habits (“gathi” which become “āsavas” over time) in more detail in the next section. Here are some basic ideas that would be helpful:

  • To form a new habit, initially it takes some effort. I tried it out by making a new habit of peeling oranges with my left hand (I am right-handed). Initially it was hard, and the main problem was that I kept forgetting to use the left hand. I had to set an alarm to remind myself first. But after a few days, I started remembering, and after a week or two, the new habit was working. Now I automatically do it, and now it is a bit strange to try to peel oranges with the right hand!
  • When we make a new habit, a set of neurons in the brain start to wire together for that task; the more we do it, the stronger the neural connections become. This is what happens when we learn to ride a bike, drive a car, or zillions of other things that we do without even thinking about it; see, “Truine Brain: How the Mind Rewires the Brain via Meditation/Habits” and “How Habits are Formed and Broken – A Scientific View“.
  • In breaking a habit one needs to do the reverse. When one starts to smoke less and less, the neural connections for that task will get weaker and weaker. After a while, it will become easier not to smoke; brain will stop giving that signal. So it is critical to have the determination to hold off the urge in the beginning. Try to replace that activity with something else at that time. Craving for a food item can be removed the same way, and much more, including our bad habits such as lying, gossiping, etc. It is the same principle.

7. The basic formal meditation technique is described in the next section. For those of who need time to get rid of the BIG EIGHT, they can also monitor the progress by doing such formal meditation sessions. It is important to realize that all defilements are removed only at the Arahant stage. So, there is no point in getting discouraged if it takes time to stop bad habits; the key is to make progress, and not to go backward.

  • Sometimes when one starts on the Ariya Bhavana, things may look worse before getting better. It is like trying to cool a hot iron by sprinkling water on it, when all that smoke comes out and may appear to be getting worse. But one needs to be persistent. One needs to keep in mind that uncountable beings have attained “cooling down” by having faith in the Buddha.

Next, “The Second Level – Key to Purify the Mind“, ………..

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