October 22, 2016; revised October 25, 2016; June 15, 2018
1. Patthāna dhammā is also cited as pattāna dhammā in English.
- The word “patthāna” comes from “patta” + “āna”. I have previously mentioned that “āna” means “bringing in” as in “ānapāna” in Anapana bhavana. “Patta” in Pāli or Sinhala means the layer of a tree trunk underneath the outermost layer or bark — consisting of phloem cells — which carry food between roots and leaves. (The outer layer or bark is called “potta” in Sinhala).
- So, the word “patthāna” here conveys the idea that while the roots (mūlika hetu) are critical for the tree’s survival, the “patta” also plays an important role for the tree’s growth. In the case of Patthāna Dhamma, they play an important role of describing the conditions under which hetu or causes can bring in effects, as we will see below.
- By the way, the “patta” are essential for the tree’s survival, just as the roots of the tree are. One could kill a tree simply by a process called “girdling” where those phloem cells are removed; see the Wikipedia article: “Girdling“.
- The Buddha frequently used analogies with the workings of a tree. We also need to remember that “mula” is a root in Pāli or Sinhala, so that “mūlika héthu” means “root causes”. So, the tree’s survival depends on not only its roots, but also its “patta” containing those critical phloem cells.
- This is the same as saying Patthāna Dhamma describing CONDITIONS are as important as ROOT CAUSES, which are lōbha, dōsa, and, mōha (for akusala kamma), and alōbha, adōsa, and amōha (for kusala kamma).
2. It is also to be noted that “patthāna” in “satipatthāna” can be interpreted to mean “providing food” or “patta” +”āna” to cultivate sati or mindfulness.
- The word “patthāna dhammā” has not been discussed that much in English. Therefore, it is good to get started the right way. Buddhaghosa did not discuss it because he did not comprehend Paṭicca samuppāda, and as a result even many people who follow even Theravada Buddhism are not familiar with patthāna dhammā. Ven. Ledi Sayadaw in Burma and Ven. Rerukane Chandawimala in Sri Lanka are clear exceptions. They have discussed patthāna dhammā; see the references below.
- However, their interpretations of Tilakkhana (anicca, dukkha, anatta) are not correct.
3. In the workings of living things (including plants) — and in mental processes in particular — the mechanism of how causes lead to effects is much more complex compared to material phenomena involving inert objects.
- In these cases, many conditions need to be satisfied, in addition to having sufficient causes.
- In many cases, such critical conditions are not satisfied long after the causes were generated, so there is normally a TIME DELAY between causes and effects, i.e., between kamma and kamma vipāka.
- This is why it is hard for people to see the validity of cause and effect (hetu phala) involving living things and especially the mind.
- This is what is explained in Paṭicca samuppāda, with the help of patthāna dhammā.
- Let us discuss some examples to understand the role of conditions or paccayā.
4. All necessary causes to bring about a tree are embedded in a seed. A seed is the CAUSE for subsequent appearance of a tree. Yet, a seed cannot germinate unless suitable conditions are present. If one keeps a seed in a cool dry place, it will just sit there for even thousands of years without giving rise to a tree.
- However, if one plants the seed in the ground where sunlight is available and provides water and nutrients, it will germinate and grow to be a tree.
- The root condition to bring into existence a tree is embedded in a seed; this is called annantara paccayā. But suitable conditions for that seed to germinate are in fertile soil with adequate sunlight and water; this is called samanantara paccayā. Therefore, both annantara AND samanantara paccayā MUST be satisfied to bring a tree to existence; see, “Annantara and Samanantara Paccaya” for details.
- So, AT WHAT TIME the seed will germinate, will depend on at what time the samanantara condition (fertile soil) will be satisfied. Annantara condition (presence a seed) is not enough.
5. Another important condition of paccayā comes into play for the germinated seed to grow into a tree: The ahāra paccayā (food condition) must be satisfied. If water, sunlight, and nutrients are not available after the seed is germinated, it cannot grow to be a tree.
- A very important type of ahāra is the “food for viññāna“. When one is having bad thoughts about another person, that viññāna grows as long as one keeps thinking about that person and how bad he/she is. Viññāna ahāra are manō sancetanā.
6. Another example of such a condition or paccayā is “āsevana paccayā”. Asevana means to “associate with”.
- An important example is the association with bad friends. Whether it is a child or an adult, one’s behavior will be influenced by who one associates with; see, “The Law of Attraction, Habits, Character (Gati), and Cravings (Āsavas)“.
- I have discussed several such important conditions or paccayā in the post, “Micca Diṭṭhi – Connection to Hethu Phala (Cause and Effect)“. Here is that discourse:
There are 24 such conditions in Patthāna Dhamma. I will discuss them in detail in this subsection on “Patthāna Dhamma” in a series of posts.
- This is why mental phenomena are so complex. In many cases, a number of such conditions need to be satisfied for a cause (hetu) to lead to a corresponding effect (phala).
7. In the same way, the kammic energies created by our actions do not disappear. A given action creates a kamma seed with energy to bring in its fruits. It is just like a seed waiting for right conditions to germinate and to bring in a tree to existence.
- Those kamma seeds or kamma bīja are out there waiting for suitable conditions to bring in their effect.
- Whether they will bring vipāka, AND at what strength, AND when, will depend on the conditions or paccayā. This is what is described by Paṭicca samuppāda with the help of patthāna dhammā.
- See, “What Does “Paccaya” Mean in Paṭicca Samuppāda?“, “Saṅkhāra, Kamma, Kamma Bīja, Kamma Vipaka” and “Nāmagotta, Bhava, Kamma Bīja, and Mano Loka (Mind Plane)” for more details.
8. But there are some strong kamma that WILL bring in vipāka without exceptions. Those include ānantariya pāpa kamma. They are so strong that they do not require conditions to be just right. They bring vipāka mostly at the dying moment, i.e., death of the physical body, and will not be delayed until the cuti-patisandhi moment; so the delay is only until death.
- Some people inherit wealth unexpectedly and some people die of accidents. These are also strong kamma vipāka, though as not strong as ānantariya pāpa kamma.
- But in most cases, conditions or paccayā play major roles, sometimes many conditions need to be satisfied for vipāka to bear fruit.
9. This knowledge — or rather this understanding of — how kamma and kamma vipāka work — is called kammassakata sammā diṭṭhi, and is a REQUIREMENT to attain mundane sammā samadhi. When one fully understands this, it will be easier to see that rebirth process has a logical foundation.
- This is because one can now clearly see that most of kamma or one’s actions are going to have corresponding vipāka or results when suitable CONDITIONS appear.
- So, if one does actions suitable to be born in the apāyās, one COULD BE born in the apāyās, until one REMOVES the ability to for such CONDITIONS to appear.
- When one attains the Sōtapanna stage, the conditions suitable for a birth in the apāyās will never be realized. This requires another step BEYOND kammassakata sammā diṭṭhi, which is the comprehension of Tilakkhana.
- Therefore, getting to the Sōtapanna stage is a two-step process: first to get to kammassakata sammā diṭṭhi and then the comprehension of Tilakkhana.
- This is discussed in detail in the desana in #6 above.
10. We see people doing immoral things without them being subjected to corresponding punishments, but that does not mean they are getting away with it. Those actions can bring their fruits in future lives if they are not realized in this life.
- There are two ways to overcome kamma vipāka. The first is: those kamma seeds will lose their energy with time; they can last at most 91 aeons. They are like regular seeds, which lose their power over time.
- The other way is to attain all four stages of Nibbāna and remove the possibility of making conditions for ANY kamma seed to germinate.
11. These conditions or paccayā, play a critical role in Paṭicca samuppāda. When we say “avijjā paccayā saṅkhāra“, it means, “we do saṅkhāra with ignorance when necessary CONDITIONS are present”.
- For example, we do not do immoral acts or apunnābhi saṅkhāra all the time. When we are attracted to, or repulsed by something that we see (this is an example of ārammana paccayā), we may generate craving or dislike, and then it can lead to an immoral actions or apunnābhi saṅkhāra; see, “What Does “Paccaya” Mean in Paṭicca Samuppāda?“.
- This is the reason why kamma itself is not deterministic. Just because one has avijjā does not mean one will necessarily do an immoral thing, generating (apunnābhi) saṅkhāra. If we cultivate Satipaṭṭhāna, even if we get the urge to do something immoral, we can contemplate on the bad consequences and stop that action, speech, or thoughts.
- When one keeps doing Satipaṭṭhāna — and keep avoiding immoral acts — one’s gati will change for the better, and then even the automatic urge to do something immoral will gradually fade. In other words, one’s avijjā will reduce. This is why Satipaṭṭhāna is so important.
- The Manuals of Dhamma by Ven. Ledi Sayadaw (1999), pp. 31-57.
- Abhidharma Margaya (in Sinhala) by Ven. Rerukane Chandawimala (2010), pp. 247-278.
Next in the series, “What Does “Paccaya” Mean in Paṭicca Samuppāda?“, ..