October 12, 2017; revised February 9, 2018; June 8, 2018
Here we will discuss three key suttā from the Tipiṭaka to resolve some controversial arguments about mundane (anariya) and supramundane (Ariya) jhāna. I would appreciate any comments ([email protected]) pointing out any errors in my analysis or any suggestions.
- February 28, 2019: I have found several Tipiṭaka references so far to anariya jhāna, and a short one is discussed at the end. The post, “Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41)– Akuppā Cētōvimutti” clearly explains the difference between Ariya and anariya jhāna.
- It is interesting to note that some suttā do not specifically label jhāna as Ariya or anariya. One has to read a given sutta carefully to figure out which jhāna are discussed, but the conclusion always is that anariya jhāna are worthless by themselves unless used as a platform to attain magga phala; see, “Samādhi, Jhāna, Magga Phala – Introduction“.
- June 8, 2018: There are suttā that discuss the critical differences; see, “Pathama Metta Sutta“. As can be clearly seen in this sutta, a Sōtapanna can cultivate anariya jhāna (i.e., without removing kāma rāga), and be born in lower Brahma realms. However, unlike those with anariya jhāna without magga phala, that person will not come back to kāma lōka.
1. The main characteristics and purposes of Ariya (supermundane) jhāna are described in detail in the “jhāna Sutta (Anguttara Nikāya 9.36)“. The English translation (Mental Absorption) at that site is not good, so I will translate most of the sutta here. However, the Sinhala Translation ( ඣානනිස්සයන සූත්රය) is much better; of course, anicca and anatta are translated incorrectly there too.
- I will use key Pāli terms without translating since anyone who is reading the post is likely to understand them. I think that would make it easier to read.
2. Now, I will translate the sutta, and the numbers below correspond to the paragraphs in the Pāli version: “jhāna Sutta (Anguttara Nikāya 9.36)“.
#1. Bhikkhus, I will state the removal of āsava (mental fermentations) via the first jhāna, second jhāna, third jhāna, fourth jhāna, ākāsānañcāyatana, viññāṇañcāyatana, ākiñcaññāyatana, nevasaññānāsaññāyatana, saññāvedayitanirodha (the last four are the arūpavacara jhānic states). Also, I have minimized wording to keep the paragraph short, just giving the meaning.
- Thus the main purpose of jhānic states is to do insight meditation and remove āsava, not to enjoy that jhānic “pleasure” or relief. Nibbāna is attained via the removal of āsava: “The Way to Nibbāna – Removal of Āsavā“.
- There is a lot of important information in the next paragraph.
#2. Bhikkhus, I surely declare the removal of āsava (mental fermentations) via the first jhāna. On account of what do I say that? A bhikkhu abstaining from sense pleasures (vivicceva kāmehi), abstaining from akusala, arrives in the vicinity of the first jhāna (upasampajja viharati). He thus contemplates on the anicca nature (aniccatō), dukkha nature (dukkhato), disease-ridden nature (rogatō), cancer-like nature (gandatō), arrow-like nature (sallatō), painful (aghatō), danger-ridden (ābādhatō), alien (paratō), subject to destruction (palokatō), an empty (suññatō), not-fruitful and leading to helplessness (anattō) OF rūpa, vedana, sanna, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa (rūpagataṃ vedanāgataṃ saññāgataṃ saṅkhārāgataṃ viññāṇagataṃ). He turns his mind away from those phenomena, and having done so, inclines his mind to Nibbāna: ‘etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānan’ti. Thus he gets rid of āsava. If he does not complete the removal of āsava, he would remove the first five samyōjana and thus will be born opapatika (in brahma loka) and attain parinibbāna there, and will not return to this world (No ce āsavānaṃ khayaṃ pāpuṇāti, teneva dhammarāgena tāya dhammanandiyā pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātiko hoti tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā).
- Thus one cannot attain Ariya jhāna without comprehending anicca, dukkha, anatta nature of the pancakkhandha.
- The common verse, “..(pathamam) jhānam upasampajja viharati..” is commonly translated as, “..enters and remains in the (first) jhāna..”. However, “upasampajja viharati” (“upa” + “san” + “pajja“) means “abiding in the vicinity of clarifying and removing ‘san‘”; of course ‘san‘ are lōbha, dōsa, mōha or āsava. The prefix “upa” means “near or close”. For example, “upasampadā” (“upa” + “san” + “padā“)means a bhikkhu has advanced and is getting close to “sorting out ‘san‘ and thus to magga phala.
- Now, let us recapture the three important steps in the above paragraph: First, one gets to the jhāna by contemplating on a long list of faults (ādeenava) of the five aggregates rūpa, vedana, sanna, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa that make up one’s world; see, “The Five Aggregates (Pancakkhandha)“.
- Once one gets to the vicinity of the first jhāna, one could intensify it and be fully absorbed in it, by contemplating on the relief that is already seen: ‘etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ sabbasaṅkhārasamatho sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānan’ti. This is the extra effort involved in cultivating jhāna, versus pannāvimutti path.
- Thirdly, one can get to the higher jhāna by again contemplating the faults (ādeenava) of the five aggregates.
#3. “Bhikkhus, an archer or archer’s apprentice were to practice on a straw man or mound of clay, after a while he would become able to shoot long distances, to fire accurate shots in rapid succession, and to pierce great masses; in the same way, a bhikkhu abstaining from sensuality, abstaining from akusala, arrives in the vicinity (upasampajja) of the first jhāna”.
- The rest is essentially the same as in #2 above from that point onward about how āsava are removed by contemplating on those faults (ādeenava) of the five aggregates, to the following confirmation statement at the end of the paragraph to emphasize the following: “Bhikkhus, I surely declare removal of āsava (mental fermentations) via the first jhāna”.
#4. This paragraph essentially repeats the same paragraph of #2 above, for the second, third, and fourth jhāna. It is interesting that even at the fourth jhāna, one could only be guaranteed to become an Anāgami. However, as mentioned in #2, one could attain the Arahanthood even from the first jhāna, if all āsava are removed, and that, of course, will apply to any jhāna through the fourth.
#5. Same verse as #3 repeated for the second, third, and fourth jhāna, with the paragraph ending, “..Bhikkhus, I surely declare the removal of āsava (mental fermentations) via the fourth jhāna“.
#6 , #7. The paragraphs in #2 and #3 for the first jhāna are now repeated for the first arūpavacara jhāna: ākāsānañcāyatana.
#8 , #9. The paragraphs in #2 and #3 for the first jhāna are now repeated for the second and third arūpavacara jhāna: viññāṇañcāyatana and ākiñcaññāyatana. Again, it is interesting that even at such higher arūpavacra jhānā, one could only be guaranteed to become an Anāgami.
#10. “As for the two saññāsamāpatti āyatana – nevasaññā nā saññāyatana samāpatti and saññāvedayitanirodho – they remove āsava and will lead to the faultless state of Nibbāna.”
- Thus if one gets to the highest arūpavacra Ariya jhāna, one will definitely attain the Arahantship, and also will be able to get to nirodha samāpatti (saññāvedayitanirodho).
3. That is, in essence, the complete sutta, which provides many key insights that have been hidden surprisingly. I almost fell off my chair when I first read it. I am not sure how and why modern translators failed to understand the importance of this sutta.
- Then I started reading more suttā and realized that these key pieces of information are in many other suttā as well. see, for example, “Cūḷa Vvedalla Sutta (MN 44)” AND “Kāyagatāsati Sutta (MN 119)“.
4. We can learn a lot of key aspects of Ariya jhāna from this important sutta. Let us begin with the fact that one gets to the vicinity (upasampajja) of the first jhāna by contemplating the faults (ādeenava) of pancakkhandha (rūpa, vedana, sanna, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa); once getting there, one further removes āsava by the same process.
- Thus, one gets to jhāna with insight meditation (Vipassanā) on the unsuitability (faults of) kāmavacara states, and then once getting to jhāna, starts doing Vipassanā on the unsuitability of any jhānic state in order to transcend that state.
- There is a long list of such faults (ādeenava) (from #1): anicca nature (aniccatō), dukkha nature (dukkhato), disease-ridden nature (rogatō), cancer-like nature (gandatō), arrow-like nature (sallatō), painful (aghatō), danger-ridden (ābādhatō), alien (paratō), subject to destruction (palokatō), an empty (suññatō), not-fruitful and leading to helplessness (anattō).
5. Therefore, the main goal at any given Ariya jhāna is to contemplate on all those faults (ādeenava) of that state — thus move to the next higher state — and to finally arrive at Nibbāna at the last (8th) jhāna. Of course, one could completely remove all āsava and attain Nibbāna from any lower jhāna.
- If one attains Nibbāna from a lower jhānic state (below the highest arūpavacara jhāna), one is said to attain pannāvimutti. If one goes through to that highest jhāna and attains Nibbāna, one is said to have attained akuppā cetovimutti. I will have a separate post on this.
- While the word “jhāna” has come to common use, a better word is “dhyāna” (ඣාන in Pāli and දැවීම in Sinhala, meaning “burning”).
- We will stick with the word “jhāna” instead of “dhyana” since it is in common use. It is just useful to know where the meaning comes from.
6. It is obvious that one can think clearly in any jhāna. Even intermittent vitakka/vicāra (“wheeling around” with stray thoughts) will be absent after the second jhāna, i.e., one is in the avitakka/avicāra (free of vitakka/vicāra) mode after the second jhāna; I will discuss jhānanga or jhāna factors in a future post.
- This is why Ariya jhāna are helpful in insight (Vipassanā) meditation. The mind becomes clear when more and more saṅkhāra are removed as one proceeds to higher jhāna states.
7. Even though the relief experienced in Ariya jhāna is the only “enjoyment” recommended by the Buddha, that is not the main purpose of Ariya jhāna. That is because if one gets attached to a jhāna, one is not able to move up to the higher one. In any case, it is mainly those who get to anariya jhāna, get attached to them (however, it is possible to attain any stage of magga phala even with anariya jhāna or even without any jhāna). If one has seen the anicca nature, one would not get attached to a jhāna.
- In that context, in a previous post it was discussed that any jhānic state is a mental state corresponding “this world”; see, “Ascendance to Nibbāna via Jhāna (dhyāna)“.
8. Pancanīvarana are also completely removed at the first Ariya jhāna. From the Mahāvedalla Sutta (Majjhima Nikāya 43): “.. Idhāvuso, paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ samāpannāssa bhikkhuno kāmacchando pahīno hoti, byāpādo pahīno hoti, thinamiddhaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, uddhaccakukkuccaṃ pahīnaṃ hoti, vicikicchā pahīnā hoti..”.
- There are many suttā that clearly state such conditions for the first supramundane jhāna.
- In contrast, neither the five samyōjana nor the pancanīvarana are removed in any mundane jhāna. The reasons are obvious: none of the kilesa (klēsha/defilements) can be removed by taking a neutral object as the ārammana.
9. This is why the Buddha told Ven. Saddha: “..“Ājānīyajhāyitaṃ kho, saddha, jhāya; mā khaḷuṅkajhāyitaṃ..”, OR “Saddha, cultivate the ajānīya (thoroughbred horse) jhāna, not the khalunka (mule) jhāna“: Saddha Sutta (Anguttara Nikāya 11.9).
- In the Sutta Central translation, khalunka is translated as a colt (a young horse). But the correct translation is a mule. As described in the sutta, a mule is lazy and useless, compared to a thoroughbred horse.
- As described in the sutta, one who cultivates mundane jhāna takes worldly objects (kasina, breath) as ārammana, and even though can attain jhāna, will not have the respect of the devas who can see the ārammana.
- On the other hand, devas cannot see the ārammana (Nibbāna) of those who have cultivated Ariya jhāna, and they pay to him from a distance.
10. Therefore, there is a HUGE difference in HOW one on arrives at a given jhāna.
- One using the anariya path gets to jhānā by focusing one’s mind on a mundane object, i.e., an object belonging to this world (for example, one’s own breath or a kasina object) and/or by contemplating on mundane moral thoughts (benevolent, kind, etc); we will discuss this in the next post.
- One on the Noble Path, on the other hand, arrives there by contemplating on Nibbāna, i.e., the anicca, dukkha, anatta nature of this world of 31 realms. One may or may not get to Ariya jhāna that one can get into samāpatti (meaning uninterrupted jhāna, where the jhāna citta runs continuously without break), before getting to the Arahanthood.
- However, jhāna sukha is the only sukha recommended by the Buddha, since sense pleasures will bind one to the kāma loka. It is said that some pannāvimutta Arahants cultivate jhāna after attaining Arahanthood.
11. Also see the previous post where it is discussed how Ven. Moggallana cultivated the first jhāna after attaining the Sōtapanna stage: “Ascendance to Nibbāna via Jhāna (dhyāna)“.
- One who can get fully absorbed in the first Ariya jhāna will be born in the Suddhāvāsa realms of the rūpa loka, and will not come back to the kāma loka, i.e., one is an Anāgami, as clearly stated in the Jhāna Sutta and several other suttas.
- On the other hand, one who cultivates mundane first jhāna will be born in the first rūpavacara Brahma realm in the next birth, but in later rebirths could be even born in the apāyā (since kāma rāga was only suppressed, not removed).
12. One can get into mundane (anariya) jhāna via such breath or kasina meditation, and one could do Vipassanā from such mundane jhānic states.
- But the problem is, in many cases, people get addicted to those states and are unable to see the anicca nature of them.
13. In addition to the above suttā (and more that I found) on Ariya jhāna, I found other suttā that discussed anariya jhāna. In none of these suttā, there was a specific label saying Ariya jhāna or anariya jhāna. However, one can clearly see which is which when reading text.
- In the following reference, it is clearly stated that kāma rāga is only suppressed (vikkhambhanato) in all rūpavācara and arūpavācara jhāna. On the other hand, it states that kāma rāga is removed (samucchedato) in stages via magga phala.
- The difference between vikkhambhana pahāna and samuccheda pahāna is discussed in, “Suffering in This Life – Role of Mental Impurities“.
The following are the two relevant passages from the Khuddaka Nikāya, Mahāniddesa, Aṭṭhakavagga: 1. Kāmasuttaniddesa . There is no English translation there, but the Sinhala translation is given: කාම සූත්ර නිර්දෙශය.
Paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ bhāventopi vikkhambhanato kāme parivajjeti … pe … dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ bhāventopi … tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ bhāventopi … catutthaṃ jhānaṃ bhāventopi … ākāsānañcāyatanasamāpattiṃ bhāventopi … viññāṇañcāyatanasamāpattiṃ bhāventopi … ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpattiṃ bhāventopi … nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasamāpattiṃ bhāventopi vikkhambhanato kāme parivajjeti. Evaṃ vikkhambhanato kāme parivajjeti.
- Translated: “kāma” is suppressed (vikkhambhanato) in the first jhāna, …to nevasaññānāsaññāyatana (highest arūpavācara jhāna). As we saw above, kāma is removed even before getting to Ariya jhāna. Thus, only anariya (mundane) jhāna are meant here.
- I hope to discuss in detail the “Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41)” as another example.
Kathaṃ samucchedato kāme parivajjeti? Sotāpattimaggaṃ bhāventopi apāyagamanīye kāme samucchedato parivajjeti, sakadāgāmimaggaṃ bhāventopi oḷārike kāme samucchedato parivajjeti, anāgāmimaggaṃ bhāventopi anusahagate kāme samucchedato parivajjeti, arahattamaggaṃ bhāventopi sabbena sabbaṃ sabbathā sabbaṃ asesaṃ nissesaṃ samucchedato kāme parivajjeti. Evaṃ samucchedato kāme parivajjetīti—yo kāme parivajjeti.
- Translated: “kāma” is removed (samucchedato) in stages via the Sotāpanna, Sakadāgāmi stages and is removed at the Anāgami stage; it is removed without a trace at the Arahant stage.
14. The following sutta clearly states the difference between Ariya and anariya jhānā.
Paṭhamanānākaraṇa Sutta (AN 4. 123): “ Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco puggalo vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. So tadassādeti, taṃ nikāmeti, tena ca vittiṃ āpajjāti. Tattha ṭhito tadadhimutto tabbahula-vihārī aparihīno kālaṃ kurumāno brahmakāyikānaṃ devānaṃ sahabyataṃ upapajjāti. Brahmakāyikānaṃ, bhikkhave, devānaṃ kappo āyuppamāṇaṃ. Tattha puthujjano yāvatāyukaṃ ṭhatvā yāvatakaṃ tesaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ taṃ sabbaṃ khepetvā nirayampi gacchati tiracchānayonimpi gacchati pettivisayampi gacchati. Bhagavato pana sāvako tattha yāvatāyukaṃ ṭhatvā yāvatakaṃ tesaṃ devānaṃ āyuppamāṇaṃ taṃ sabbaṃ khepetvā tasmiṃyeva bhave parinibbāyati. Ayaṃ kho, bhikkhave, viseso ayaṃ adhippayāso idaṃ nānākaraṇaṃ sutavato ariyasāvakassa assutavatā puthujjanena, yadidaṃ gatiyā upapattiyā sati.”
Translated: “There is the case where an individual, withdrawn from sensuality (kāma), withdrawn from akusala, enters & remains in the first jhāna: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He savors that, longs for that, finds satisfaction through that. Staying there—fixed on that, dwelling there often, not losing the jhāna—then when he dies he is born with the devas of Brahma’s retinue. The devas of Brahma’s retinue, monks, have a life-span of an eon. A run-of-the-mill person having stayed there, having used up all the life-span of those devas, goes to hell, to the animal realm, or to the state of the hungry ghosts. But a disciple of the Blessed One, having stayed there, having used up all the life-span of those devas, attains Parinibbana. This, monks, is the difference, this the distinction, this the distinguishing factor, between a Noble disciple and a normal person who had not heard the Noble Truths (assutavatā puthujjanena), in regards to the gati and birth.”
- When one attains the first Ariya jhāna, one has become an Anāgāmi. He/she will be born in that Brahma realm and will attain Parinibbana there, as clearly stated in the above sutta.
- In other words, kāma rāga is to be completely REMOVED to get to the first Ariya jhāna. It is only temporarily suppressed (vikkhambana pahāna) for the anariya jhāna.
- Even some followers of Waharaka Thēro in Sri Lanka do not seem to understand this point. However, Waharaka Thēro has clearly explained this in the following short dēsana (in Sinhala): “Ariya and Anariya Jhana“.