Abhidhamma – Introduction

Revised January 9, 2019; August 4, 2019; September 8, 2019

1. “Abhi” means “higher” or “deeper.” Thus Abhidhamma is a more in-depth, fundamental description of Buddha Dhamma.

  • The result is the same when compared with the material in the suttā, but Abhidhamma provides a “bottom-up” description of the existence, starting with 82 “most basic units” within the four ultimate entities of citta, cetasika, rūpa, and Nibbāna. That was a monumental task, and that is why it took almost 500 years to finalize it at the third Buddhist Council.
  • The 81 “basic units” that make up this world are one pure citta,  52 cetasika, and 28 types of rūpa. Depending on the combinations of cetasika that arise with citta, there will be 89 (or 121) types of contaminated citta (or viññāna) that can occur. That will become clear as we discuss further.

2. In the suttā, the Buddha explained the Dhamma concepts using everyday language. And most people can attain Nibbāna without knowing anything about Abhidhamma

  • However, one could study Abhidhamma and see for oneself WHY Buddha Dhamma is not a religion but is the ultimate explanation of nature, the Grand Unified Theory. That can lead to a “faith-based understanding” of Buddha Dhamma. It has a thousand-fold more explanatory power than modern science. And for those who like to “get to the bottom of understanding something,” Abhidhamma will bring joy to the heart.

Let us take the example of making a cake:

  • All one needs to know are the ingredients and how to mix them and proper procedures to bake it. That is analogous to suttā.
  • Abhidhamma approach is comparable to starting at the atomic level of the ingredients. Then one can describe how those fundamental entities combine to make flour, oil, eggs, etc. Furthermore, one would know the choice of those ingredients, and WHY the cake needs to baking at a specific temperature.
  • It is mind-boggling what Abhidhamma can accomplish.
  • However, instead of being a boring “recipe book,” learning Abhidhamma can be a delightful experience if one starts with an understanding of the basics. Furthermore, one can get a much deeper understanding of the Dhamma concepts.

3. Abhidhamma provides the complete, consistent description of the whole existence (encompassing the 31 realms). With this description, there can be no unexplained phenomena at any level. A logician like the late Dr. Kurt Gödel could have a great time with it; see, “Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorem.”

  • The scope of Abhidhamma is somewhat comparable to what the scientists are trying to do with a Grand Unified Theory to describe the behavior of inert matter. Einstein devoted the latter part of his life to developing one and failed, and the scientists are still far from achieving it. And even if accomplished, it will be able to describe ONLY the behavior of inert matter, not of living beings.

4. Abhidhamma is the Grand Unified Theory of the Buddha. I gave an introduction to it in the post, “Grand Unified Theory of Dhamma.” In this Abhidhamma section, I will try to provide further details. My goal is to describe it in an easy-to-grasp simple manner.

  • When I taught physics to undergraduate students, I told them not to memorize anything, but to grasp the essence of the material. Many students (and adults) try to memorize descriptions of a concept but have no idea how to apply that concept. I used to give them all the complex equations and any other hard-to-memorize material in the tests; what they needed to do was to apply them in solving problems.
  • My approach is the same here. For example, in the “Tables and Summaries” post, different types of cittā (loosely-speaking “thoughts”) are listed. There is no need to memorize them. One should understand a given Dhamma concept starting from the basics: for example, which cittā are immoral and can lead one to rebirth in the apāyā and WHY.

5. For example, a key concept in Buddha Dhamma is saññā (translated to English as “perception”). But it is much more complicated than “knowing and identifying an object”; see, “Saññā – What It Really Means.”

  • One of my first goals in the Abhidhamma section is to describe saññā, and the critical role played by the brain. For that, we first need to understand the connection between the brain and the mind (they are NOT the same).
  • Abhidhamma can make one addicted to it, as I have become addicted to it. When one starts to grasp how this complex world works, understanding even a bit more of it can bring joy to the heart.

6. However, I must say that even if one can understand the whole of the Abhidhamma theory, one MAY NOT understand the Buddha’s message. One must understand the true meanings of anicca, dukkha, anatta.

  • I had so many unresolved questions on parts of Abhidhamma until I listened to the first desana from one of my teacher Theros on July 30, 2013, on anicca, dukkha, anatta. It was like lifting a fog, and by the end of that dēsana, I knew I would be able to ‘fill-in-the-blanks” to make my understanding much better.
  • Abhidhamma can solidify and “fill-in-the-blanks” of Buddha Dhamma from the suttā, which can be exhilarating.

7. Following is a brief background on how the Abhidhamma Piṭaka of the Tipiṭaka was developed over roughly 250 years by the lineage of bhikkhus started with Ven. Sariputta. Of course, Ven. Sariputta was one of the two chief disciples of the Buddha: While Ven. Moggallana excelled in supernatural powers, Ven. Sariputta excelled in Dhamma. He was only second to the Buddha in Dhamma knowledge.

  • The minute details on the structure of a citta vithi (a series of citta) of 17 thought moments, with each citta lasting sub-billionth of a second, can be seen only by a Buddha. The Buddha described such minute details to Ven. Sariputta. Then Ven. Sariputta and his group of bhikkhus (and their subsequent lineage) completed the monumental task of making a complete description of Dhamma theory starting with the fundamental entities.
  • As I mentioned earlier, that is a million times more complicated task than putting together a Grand Unified Theory of inert matter (as scientists are attempting to do today). Because a living being has an inert body, but a complex mind which makes that inert body “alive.”

8. At the First Buddhist Council just three months after the Parinibbāna of the Buddha, only a framework of the theory was recited. More was added at the second Council, and the task was completed only at the third Council. It was this completed Tipiṭaka that was written down in 29 BCE at the Fourth Buddhist Council; see, “Preservation of the Buddha Dhamma.”

  • A false statement in many books is the following statement. Abhidhamma was “invented” by bhikkhus after the Parinibbāna of the Buddha.
  • Those who make such statements have not either studied Abhidhamma or have not been able to understand the in-depth analyses in Abhidhamma. The minute details of the very fast citta vithi are discernible only to the mind of a Buddha.
  • It is essential to realize that hundreds of Arahants at the Fourth Council wrote the whole Tipiṭaka. That included the complete Abhidhamma Piṭaka.

9. The absence of Arahants (in significant numbers) started around the second century CE, and coincided with the rise of Mahāyāna and the “contamination” of Theravada which culminated in the Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa; see, “Historical Timeline of Edward Conze.”

  • As we discuss more topics, it will become clear that only Arahants with superior mental power can accomplish a complex task of completing the Abhidhamma Piṭaka. It was compiled in the absence of an easy way of recording, let alone having access to computers.
  • I have given a breakdown of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka in the post, “Preservation of Dhamma.”

10. August 12, 2015: I have brought the subsections on  “Mind and Consciousness” and “Gandhabba (Manomaya Kaya)” from “Dhamma Concepts” to the “Abhidhamma” section since it is imperative to understand those basic concepts first. It is a good idea to read those subsections (and “Citta and Cetasika“) before reading further in the Abhidhamma section.

  • It is not necessary to understand the material in all those essays. But the more of those basic concepts one understands, it becomes easier to grasp the content in subsequent articles.
  • Also, we all keep increasing our understanding as we learn Dhamma. I learn new things every day and try to update the posts as much as possible. The more one learns, the more one can “see the inconsistencies” in other versions of “Buddhism,” and possibly in my essays; some of these posts date back to 2014. Please don’t hesitate to point out any inconsistencies on this website. I would be grateful. There is a “Comments” tab under each post.

 11. September 8, 2019I have written a series of posts in a new subsection to introduce fundamental concepts in Abhidhamma at “Essential Abhidhamma – The Basics.”



1. “Bhikkhu_Bodhi-Comprehensive_Manual_of_Abhidhamma,” by Bhikkhu Bodhi (2000); this is a revised and updated version of Ref. 2 below. There is a pdf file that can be downloaded (click the link to open the pdf).

2. “A Manual of Abhidhamma” by Narada Thero (1979).

3. “Buddha Abhidhamma – Ultimate Science,” by Dr. Mehm Tin Mon; this is a FREE publication (click the link to open the e-book); please read the following warning about all three references.

Unfortunately, some concepts in all three references are not correct. In particular, almost all existing Theravada texts (except the Pāli Tipiṭaka of course) have incorrect interpretations of anicca, dukkha, anatta. Also, in all three references, kasinas and breath meditation are presented as Buddhist meditations. I will try to point out such problems in relevant posts.

Next, “Citta and Cetasika – How Viññāṇa (Consciousness) Arises“, ………

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