November 8, 2016; revised September 25, 2018; October 16, 2020
July 12, 2021: It is critically important to understand what is meant by “saṅkhāra.” I just started a new section “Basic Framework of Buddha Dhamma” to discuss the relationship among the Noble Truths, Tilakkhana, and Paṭicca Samuppāda. I am including this post in that section.
- Pronunciation of Pāli words like vacī, vitakka, and vicārā can be found in “Pāli Glossary – (L-Z).”
Conscious Thoughts Are Also Vaci Saṅkhāra
1. Many people believe that only speech involves vacī saṅkhāra. However, vacī saṅkhāra are defined as “vitakka vicārā vacī saṅkhāra,” which means “vacī saṅkhāra are vitakka and vicārā.” This is in, for example, “Cūḷavedalla Sutta (MN 44)“.
- In the following, we will see that vacī saṅkhāra are our conscious, deliberate thoughts in addition to speech.
- Furthermore, this post explains how our minds initiate all our actions and speech via javana citta.
2. Vitakka is the cētasika that points the mind to a given thought object (ārammana). Vicāra cētasika keeps the mind engaged on that thought object, i.e., generating new thoughts about it. Abhidhamma gives the following analogy. A bee flying to a certain flower is like vitakka (going to n new ārammana) and then buzzing around that flower while drinking nectar is like vicāra (engaging with that ārammana.)
- Similarly, when we focus the mind on a certain object and then keep the mind there, we generate many thoughts about that object. These are conscious, deliberate thoughts, and not manō saṅkhāra that arise automatically.
- For example, if we start thinking about an enemy, we could be spending many minutes or even hours thinking bad thoughts (vacī saṅkhāra) about that person. We do most of that in our minds, just talking to ourselves. But we may also get some of those thoughts out as actual words.
Savitakka/Savicāra Are Present in “Good Thoughts”
3. However, vitakka and vicāra involve defiled thoughts or thoughts about getting things done to live this life.
- When one generates thoughts that specifically do not involve kāma rāga or other akusala — but the opposites (nekkhamma/kusala) — those are called savitakka and savicāra.
- That is how one gets into jhāna: By eliminating (or suppressing) vitakka/vicāra and cultivating savitakka/savicāra.
- This is clearly seen in any sutta that describes jhāna. For example, in “Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41),”: “So kho ahaṃ, ānanda, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi.” When one is a jhāna, vitakka/vicāra with kāma rāga/akusala are absent, and only savitakka/savicāra will be present.
- In the above verse, “vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi” means kāma rāga/akusala are absent in the mind while in jhāna.
Mano Saṅkhāra Arise Automatically Per Our Gati
4. In contrast, when we first thought about that person in the example of #2 above, only manō saṅkhāra were AUTOMATICALLY generated according to our gati. We don’t have any control over manō saṅkhāra other than by changing our gati over time.
- This is a key point to grasp and is discussed in detail in the posts “How Are Gati and Kilesa Incorporated into Thoughts?” and “Suffering in This Life and Paṭicca Samuppāda” as well as other posts in the “Living Dhamma” section.
- My goal in this post is to point out this critical difference between manō and vacī saṅkhāra. Our non-automatic, conscious thoughts — as well as speech — involve vacī saṅkhāra.
Kāya Saṅkhāra Control Bodily Actions
5. Kāya saṅkhāra involves kamma done with bodily actions. So, one can come to the wrong conclusion that speech also is kāya saṅkhāra since body parts (tongue, lips, and associated facial muscles) are moved during the speech.
- I automatically came to that wrong conclusion when I first analyzed these terms, without contemplating deeply. The key is that speech originates via types of rūpa that are different from that rūpa that lead to other bodily movements (like walking or moving arms).
- To understand this, one needs to know how our body parts move according to our thoughts.
6. Our physical body parts are really mechanical. There is no “life” in them unless a gandhabba controls that body. gandhabba is an important concept in Buddha Dhamma. It has been neglected simply because it is not discussed in the infamous Visuddhimagga and other literature by Buddhaghosa, who single-handedly distorted it. Buddha Dhamma; see, “Incorrect Thēravada Interpretations – Historical Timeline.”
- The concept of gandhabba is an essential element in Buddha Dhamma; see, “Gandhabba State – Evidence from Tipiṭaka.”
- Without the concept of gandhabba, it is not possible to explain the difference between bhava and jāti: “Bhava and Jāti – States of Existence and Births Therein,” and not believing it a micchā diṭṭhi: “Micca Diṭṭhi, Gandhabba, and Sotāpanna Stage.”
- Tirokuṭṭa Sutta (Kp7) is a famous sutta that describes the gandhabba as “tirokudda“; see, “Antarabhava and gandhabba” and posts referred to there.
Gandhabba (Mental Body) Controls the Physical Body
7. Let us briefly discuss how the mind of the gandhabba controls a physical body. The physical body comprises 32 body parts, just like a robot is made out of its various parts. What gives life to this physical body is the gandhabba, a very fine body smaller than an atom in modern science.
- Even though the gandhabba is negligibly small in “weight,” it has this fine body that spreads over the physical body like a fine mesh; it is more like an energy field. A fine nervous system is associated with the gandhabba that overlaps the physical nervous system consisting of billions of nerve cells.
- Gandhabba also has the seat of the mind (hadaya vatthu) and five pasāda rūpa (that receive signals from the five physical senses via the brain) located close to the physical heart; see, “Brain – Interface between Mind and Body” for details.
The Role of the Brain
8. How can such a negligibly small gandhabba move a heavy physical body? gandhabba is more like a signal source that gives appropriate commands. The brain (which is a very sophisticated computer) translates those commands into actual signals given to the physical nervous system.
- The energy to move those body parts comes from the food that we eat.
- The posts “Gandhabba in a Human Body – an Analogy,” “Ghost in the Machine – Synonym for the Manomaya Kaya?” and other related posts discuss that in more detail. But let us discuss the concept using an example, without getting into those details.
9. When someone decides to move his arm, it is actually the mind that resides in the gandhabba that makes that decision (and generates corresponding kāya saṅkhāra). Then that signal goes to the brain, and the brain converts that “mental signal” into chemical signals. They, in turn, transmit through the nervous system to the muscles in the arm and move the arm.
- The energy produced by the digestion of our food goes into energizing the brain and moving body parts.
- So, the gandhabba uses a negligible fraction of the energy needed to move body parts. That is similar to the tiny amount of energy spent by a computer in controlling a fighter jet. Jet fuel provides energy to move the heavy jet. In the same way, the food we eat provides the energy to move our physical bodies.
- We generate that small energy in our thoughts — via javana citta — as we discuss below.
Kāya and Vaci Viññatti Rūpa
10. The commands from the gandhabba are signals or tiny amounts of energy, and these come in two varieties: kāya viññatti rūpa and vacī viññatti rūpa. These are two of the 28 types of rūpa in Abhidhamma.
- The kāya viññatti rūpa control bodily movements, and vacī viññatti rūpa control speech.
- Javana cittā generate these “rūpa” or “energy signals.” Again, more information can be found in the Abhidhamma section.
11. Speech — done with vacī viññatti rūpa — is different from moving body parts. Speech involves complex muscle movements not yet understood by science. Moving body parts — done with kāya viññatti rūpa — is simpler.
- What is behind vacī viññatti rūpa are vitakka and vicārā cētasika that are in javana citta responsible for speech. However, when we “talk to ourselves,” the javana citta responsible are weaker than those responsible for actual speech. But those two cētasika are in both types of javana citta.
- Javana citta that are responsible for physical action (like raising an arm or walking) involve kāya viññatti rūpa, and the javana citta that generate those are even stronger.
- Therefore, both vacī saṅkhāra (whether talking to oneself or actually speaking) and kāya saṅkhāra (bodily actions) involve javana citta. All kamma that can be controlled directly by us are done via javana citta; see, “Amazingly Fast Time Evolution of a Thought (Citta)” and “Javana of a Citta – The Root of Mental Power.”
Vottapana Citta – Decision to Take Action
12. The initial decision to generate vacī or kāya saṅkhāra actually happens at the vottapana citta, which comes just before the seven javana citta in a citta vithi, which has 17 citta in total; see, “Citta Vithi – Processing of Sense Inputs,” and other related posts in the Abhidhamma section.
- That “initial reaction” to a sense input comes AUTOMATICALLY in the vottapana citta, and the nature of that reaction depends on one’s gati. Thus, the AUTOMATIC manō saṅkhāra are generated in that vottapana citta.
13. If you are not familiar with Abhidhamma, don’t be discouraged by these details. This post provides undeniable evidence that vacī saṅkhāra controls not only speech but also “talking to oneself.”
- But for those familiar with Abhidhamma, the relationship between terminology and concepts could become much clearer with this discussion.
Kammaṭṭhāna (Meditation Recital) Can Be Silent
14. Now, let us take a couple of examples to illustrate this without Abhidhamma. When one is doing a kammaṭṭhāna (i.e., meditation recital), one could either say the phrase(s) out loud or recite it in one’s head. Both involve vaci saṅkhāra.
- A kammatthāna can be done in either of those two ways, and both involve vacī saṅkhāra.
- Furthermore, the more one understands the meditation phrase’s concepts, the more powerful those javana citta will be, and thus more effective the meditation session becomes.
- When one is starting on meditation, it is better to say the phrases out loud because it is easier to keep the mind on that topic. When one gets better at it, one could recite it internally, without getting the words out.
- This is an example of a punnābhi saṅkhāra (meritorious deed) that involves vacī saṅkhāra.
Need to Be Careful With Silent Vaci Saṅkhāra
15. Now, let us consider an apunnābhi saṅkhāra (immoral deed) that involves vacī saṅkhāra, where one starts generating bad thoughts about an enemy or a person that one dislikes. One could be generating a lot of such vacī saṅkhāra internally, without saying a single word. However, when the feelings get strong, the words may just come out because the javana power of javana citta could become uncontrollable.
- Even though the javana power involved in “silent vacī saṅkhāra” are less than those involved in speech, one could be generating much more of those “silent vacī saṅkhāra” and thus could be generating more kamma vipāka.
- Just like in the earlier example, the “power” behind javana citta with vacī saṅkhāra will be higher when the degree of hate associated with that person is higher. That is why it is harder to control oneself when dealing with a person that one really hates.
Sammā Saṅkappa Involve Vacī Saṅkhāra
16. In the Noble Eightfold Path, Sammā Saṅkappa deals with only one component of vacī saṅkhāra, those conscious thoughts without speech. Getting rid of all vacī saṅkhāra involve both Sammā Saṅkappa and Sammā Vācā.
- “Saṅkappa” in Pāli or “sankappanā” in Sinhala means conscious thoughts that involve “san” or things that contribute to the sansaric journey (rebirth process). Here “sankappanā” comes from “san” + “kappanā,” where “kappanā” means conscious thoughts. When one keeps thinking about something, those thoughts are “sankappanā.”
- Of course, “san” is a key Pāli term in Buddha Dhamma; see the subsection posts, “San.” Sammā means to get rid of, as discussed in the same section.
- Therefore, Samma Saṅkappa or Sammā sankappanā means removing bad conscious and deliberate thoughts and cultivating moral thoughts.
- Sammā vācā involves stopping immoral speech and generating moral speech.
17. The main point to be extracted from this discussion is that one needs to be very careful about generating hateful (or greedy) conscious thoughts for a long time. When one becomes aware of such thoughts, one CAN stop them. This is the basis of both Anāpāna and Satipaṭṭhāna Bhāvanā.
- We always think conscious thoughts (vacī saṅkhāra of the first kind) before acting on them, either via speech (vacī saṅkhāra of the second kind) or via bodily actions (kāya saṅkhāra)!
- This is discussed in detail in “How Are Gati and Kilesa Incorporated into Thoughts?“, “Suffering in This Life and Paṭicca Samuppāda,” “Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta – Relevance to Suffering in This Life,” as well as other posts in the “Living Dhamma” section.
- Experiencing pleasing sense objects (called kāma guna) is not kāma. Generating vaci saṅkhāra (or kāma sankappanā) about them is kāma; see, “Kāma Guna, Kāma, Kāma Rāga, Kāmaccanda.”
Further details at “Vitakka, Vicāra, Savitakka, Savicāra, and Avitakka, Avicāra“