Vacī Sankhārās are involved in speech and conscious thoughts (talking to oneself), per Tipiṭaka.
November 8, 2016; revised September 25, 2018; October 16, 2020; December 18, 2022 (#1, #4)
July 12, 2021: It is critically important to understand what is meant by “saṅkhāra.” I just started a new “Basic Framework of Buddha Dhamma” section to discuss the relationship among the Noble Truths, Tilakkhana, and Paṭicca Samuppāda. I include this post in that section.
- Pronunciation of Pāli words like vacī, vitakka, and vicārā can be found in “Pāli Glossary – (L-Z).”
Conscious Thoughts Are Also Vaci Saṅkhāra
1. Many people believe that only speech involves vacī saṅkhāra. However, vacī saṅkhāra are defined as “vitakka vicārā vacī saṅkhāra,” which means “vacī saṅkhāra are vitakka and vicārā.” This is in, for example, “Cūḷavedalla Sutta (MN 44)“.
- In the “Mahācattārīsaka Sutta (MN 117), “ sammā saṅkappa is defined as “thinking, re-thinking, Noble thoughts (vacī saṅkhāra) devoid of āsava. See #11 of “Vacī Saṅkhāra – Saṅkappa (Conscious Thoughts) and Vācā (Speech).”
- In the following, we will see that vacī saṅkhāra are our conscious, deliberate thoughts and speech.
- Furthermore, this post explains how our minds initiate all our actions and speech via javana citta.
2. Vitakka is the cētasika that points the mind to a given thought object (ārammana). Vicāra cētasika keeps the mind engaged on that thought object, i.e., generating new thoughts about it. Abhidhamma gives the following analogy. A bee flying to a particular flower is like vitakka (going to n new ārammana) and then buzzing around that flower while drinking nectar is like vicāra (engaging with that ārammana.)
- Similarly, when we focus on a specific object and then keep the mind there, we generate many thoughts about that object. These are conscious, deliberate thoughts, not manō saṅkhāra that arise automatically.
- For example, if we start thinking about an enemy, we could spend many minutes or even hours thinking evil thoughts (bad vacī saṅkhāra) about that person. We do most of that in our minds, just talking to ourselves. But we may also get some of those thoughts out as actual words.
Savitakka/Savicāra Are Present in “Good Thoughts”
3. When describing jhāna, vitakka and vicāra involve defiled thoughts. There, avitakka and avicāra mean the absence of defiled thoughts.
- When one generates thoughts that specifically do not involve kāma rāga or other akusala — but the opposites (nekkhamma/kusala) — those are called savitakka and savicāra.
- That is how one gets into jhāna: Eliminating (or suppressing) vitakka/vicāra and cultivating savitakka/savicāra.
- This is seen in any sutta that describes jhāna. For example, in “Tapussa Sutta (AN 9.41),”: “So kho ahaṃ, ānanda, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharāmi.” When one is a jhāna, vitakka/vicāra with kāma rāga/akusala are absent, and only savitakka/savicāra will be present.
- In the above verse, “vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi” means kāma rāga/akusala are absent in the mind while in jhāna.
Nibbāna Is Not “Stopping Thoughts”
4. I know of several “Buddhist” groups who try to “stop” all thoughts, believing that is what happens at the Arahant stage of Nibbāna, i.e., they think that the Buddha spent 45 years of his life trying to teach people how to stop thoughts, which is an even worse interpretation of Nibbāna than the Mahāyānists.
- When we are in deep sleep or unconscious, we do not “think thoughts.” Does that mean we can attain Arahanthood during such times?
- The Buddha advised us to stop immoral thoughts and to ENCOURAGE moral thoughts; that is how one purifies the mind. This is what one does in the correct ānāpānasati meditation, too; see “What is Ānāpāna?” and “Elephant in the Room 3 – Ānāpānasati.”
- The reality is that an Arahant‘s thoughts are crystal clear (and pure) because they are devoid of defilements. Their memory is, in fact, actually enhanced.
- Stopping ALL thoughts can lead to loss of perception and memory.
Mano Saṅkhāra Arise Automatically Per Our Gati
5. In contrast, when we first thought about that person in example #2 above, only manō saṅkhāra were AUTOMATICALLY generated according to our gati. We don’t have any control over manō saṅkhāra other than by changing our gati over time.
- This is a crucial point to grasp and is discussed in detail in the posts “How Are Gati and Kilesa Incorporated into Thoughts?” and “Suffering in This Life and Paṭicca Samuppāda” as well as other posts in the “Living Dhamma” section.
- My goal in this post is to point out this critical difference between manō and vacī saṅkhāra. Our non-automatic, conscious thoughts — as well as speech — involve vacī saṅkhāra.
Kāya Saṅkhāra Control Bodily Actions
6. Kāya saṅkhāra involves kamma done with bodily actions. So, one can come to the wrong conclusion that speech also is kāya saṅkhāra since body parts (tongue, lips, and associated facial muscles) are moved during the speech.
- I automatically came to the wrong conclusion when I first analyzed these terms without contemplating them deeply. The key is that speech originates via types of rūpa that are different from that rūpa that lead to other bodily movements (like walking or moving arms).
- To understand this, one needs to know how our body parts move according to our thoughts.
7. Our physical body parts are mechanical. They have no “life” unless a gandhabba controls that body. gandhabba is an essential concept in Buddha Dhamma. It has been neglected simply because it is not discussed in the infamous Visuddhimagga and other literature by Buddhaghosa, who single-handedly distorted it. Buddha Dhamma; see “Incorrect Thēravada Interpretations – Historical Timeline.”
- The concept of gandhabba is essential in Buddha Dhamma; see “Gandhabba State – Evidence from Tipiṭaka.”
- Without the concept of gandhabba, it is not possible to explain the difference between bhava and jāti: “Bhava and Jāti – States of Existence and Births Therein,” and not believing it a micchā diṭṭhi: “Micca Diṭṭhi, Gandhabba, and Sotāpanna Stage.”
- Tirokuṭṭa Sutta (Kp7) is a famous sutta that describes the gandhabba as “tirokudda“; see, “Antarabhava and gandhabba” and posts referred to there.
Gandhabba (Mental Body) Controls the Physical Body
8. Let us briefly discuss how the mind of the gandhabba controls a physical body. The physical body comprises 32 parts, just like a robot is made of various parts. What gives life to this physical body is the gandhabba, a very fine body smaller than an atom in modern science.
- Even though the gandhabba is negligibly tiny in “weight,” it has this fine body that spreads over the physical body like a fine mesh; it is more like an energy field. A fine nervous system is associated with the gandhabba, which overlaps the physical nervous system consisting of billions of nerve cells.
- Gandhabba also has the seat of the mind (hadaya vatthu) and five pasāda rūpa (that receive signals from the five physical senses via the brain) located close to the physical heart; see “Brain – Interface between Mind and Body” for details.
The Role of the Brain
9. How can such a negligibly small gandhabba move a heavy physical body? gandhabba is more like a signal source that gives appropriate commands. The brain (a very sophisticated computer) translates those commands into actual signals given to the physical nervous system.
- The energy to move those body parts comes from the food we eat.
- The posts “Gandhabba in a Human Body – an Analogy,” “Ghost in the Machine – Synonym for the Manomaya Kaya?” and other related posts discuss that in more detail. But let us discuss the concept using an example without getting into those details.
10. When someone decides to move his arm, the mind resides in the gandhabba makes that decision (and generates corresponding kāya saṅkhāra). Then that signal goes to the brain, which converts that “mental signal” into chemical signals. They, in turn, transmit through the nervous system to the muscles in the arm and move it.
- The energy produced by the digestion of our food goes into energizing the brain and moving body parts.
- So, the gandhabba uses a negligible fraction of the energy needed to move body parts. That is similar to the tiny amount of energy a computer spends controlling a fighter jet. Jet fuel provides energy to move the heavy jet. In the same way, the food we eat provides the energy to move our physical bodies.
- We generate that small energy in our thoughts — via javana citta — as we discuss below.
Kāya and Vaci Viññatti Rūpa
11. The commands from the gandhabba are signals or tiny amounts of energy, and these come in two varieties: kāya viññatti rūpa and vacī viññatti rūpa. These are two of the 28 types of rūpa in Abhidhamma.
- The kāya viññatti rūpa control bodily movements, and the vacī viññatti rūpa control speech.
- Javana cittās generate these “rūpa” or “energy signals.” Again, more information can be found in the Abhidhamma section.
12. Speech — done with vacī viññatti rūpa — is different from moving body parts. Speech involves complex muscle movements not yet understood by science. Moving body parts — done with kāya viññatti rūpa — is simpler.
- What is behind vacī viññatti rūpa are vitakka and vicārā cētasika that are in javana citta responsible for speech. However, when we “talk to ourselves,” the javana citta responsible are weaker than those responsible for speech. But those two cētasika are in both types of javana citta.
- Javana cittās that are responsible for physical action (like raising an arm or walking) involve kāya viññatti rūpa, and the javana citta that generate those are even stronger.
- Therefore, both vacī saṅkhāra (whether talking to oneself or speaking) and kāya saṅkhāra (bodily actions) involve javana citta. All kamma that can be controlled directly by us are done via javana citta; see “Amazingly Fast Time Evolution of a Thought (Citta)” and “Javana of a Citta – The Root of Mental Power.”
Vottapana Citta – Decision to Take Action
13. The initial decision to generate vacī or kāya saṅkhāra happens at the vottapana citta, which comes just before the seven javana citta in a citta vithi, which has 17 citta in total; see, “Citta Vithi – Processing of Sense Inputs,” and other related posts in the Abhidhamma section.
- That “initial reaction” to a sense input comes AUTOMATICALLY in the vottapana citta, and the nature of that reaction depends on one’s gati. Thus, the AUTOMATIC manō saṅkhāra are generated in that vottapana citta.
14. If you are unfamiliar with Abhidhamma, don’t be discouraged by these details. This post provides undeniable evidence that vacī saṅkhāra controls BOTH speech and “talking to oneself.”
- But for those familiar with Abhidhamma, the relationship between terminology and concepts could become much more apparent with this discussion.
Kammaṭṭhāna (Meditation Recital) Can Be Silent
15. Now, let us use examples to illustrate this without Abhidhamma. When doing a kammaṭṭhāna (i.e., meditation recital), one could either say the phrase(s) out loud or recite it in one’s head. Both involve vaci saṅkhāra.
- A kammatthāna can be done in either of those two ways, and both involve vacī saṅkhāra.
- Furthermore, the more one understands the meditation phrase’s concepts, the more powerful those javana citta will be, and thus more effective the meditation session becomes.
- When starting meditation, it is better to say the phrases out loud because it is easier to keep the mind on that topic. One can recite it internally without getting the words out when one gets better at it.
- This is an example of a punnābhi saṅkhāra (meritorious deed) that involves vacī saṅkhāra.
Need to Be Careful With Silent Vaci Saṅkhāra
16. Now, let us consider an apunnābhi saṅkhāra (immoral deed) that involves vacī saṅkhāra, where one starts generating evil thoughts about an enemy or a person that one dislikes. One could be generating a lot of such vacī saṅkhāra internally without saying a single word. However, when the feelings get intense, the words may just come out because the javana power of javana citta could become uncontrollable.
- Even though the javana power involved in “silent vacī saṅkhāra” are less than those involved in speech, one could be generating much more of those “silent vacī saṅkhāra” and thus could be generating more kamma vipāka.
- Like in the earlier example, the “power” behind javana citta with vacī saṅkhāra will be higher when the degree of hate associated with that person is higher. That is why it is harder to control oneself when dealing with someone one hates.
Sammā Saṅkappa Involve Vacī Saṅkhāra
17. In the Noble Eightfold Path, Sammā Saṅkappa deals with only one component of vacī saṅkhāra, those conscious thoughts without speech. Getting rid of all vacī saṅkhāra involve both Sammā Saṅkappa and Sammā Vācā.
- “Saṅkappa” in Pāli or “sankappanā” in Sinhala means conscious thoughts that involve “saṅ” or things that contribute to the sansaric journey (rebirth process). Here “sankappanā” comes from “saṅ” + “kappanā,” where “kappanā” means conscious thoughts. When one keeps thinking about something, those thoughts are “sankappanā.”
- Of course, “saṅ” is a crucial Pāli term in Buddha Dhamma; see the subsection posts, “Saṅ.” Sammā means to get rid of, as discussed in the same section.
- Therefore, Samma Saṅkappa or Sammā sankappanā means removing bad conscious and deliberate thoughts and cultivating moral thoughts.
- Sammā vācā involves stopping immoral speech and generating moral speech.
18. The main point to be extracted from this discussion is that one needs to be very careful about generating hateful (or greedy) conscious thoughts for a long time. When one becomes aware of such thoughts, one CAN stop them. This is the basis of both Anāpāna and Satipaṭṭhāna Bhāvanā.
- We always think conscious thoughts (vacī saṅkhāra of the first kind) before acting on them, either via speech (vacī saṅkhāra of the second kind) or via bodily actions (kāya saṅkhāra)!
- This is discussed in detail in “How Are Gati and Kilesa Incorporated into Thoughts?“, “Suffering in This Life and Paṭicca Samuppāda,” “Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta – Relevance to Suffering in This Life,” as well as other posts in the “Living Dhamma” section.
- Experiencing pleasing sense objects (called kāma guna) is not kāma. Generating vaci saṅkhāra (or kāma sankappanā) about them is kāma; see, “Kāma Guna, Kāma, Kāma Rāga, Kāmaccanda.”
Further details at “Vitakka, Vicāra, Savitakka, Savicāra, and Avitakka, Avicāra“
For those who understand the Sinhala language, the following discourse is relevant to this post: “කාය සංඛාර, වචී සංඛාර, මනෝ සංඛාර තුළින් කර්ම පථයක් හැදෙන අයුරු“