Revised July 15, 2020; July 30, 2022
Javana Cittā Are Associated with Abhisaṅkhāra
1. The power of the human mind has been discussed in several posts starting with “Power of the Human Mind – Introduction.” There are different kinds of cittā; the most powerful ones are javana cittā (“javana” means an arrow in flight; it can be highly potent).
- Such javana cittā are responsible for abhisaṅkhāra, those saṅkhāra that are potent and will lead to (good or bad) consequences. Puññābhisaṅkhāra is the meritorious abhisaṅkhāra that will lead to good results, and apuññābhisaṅkhāra is the immoral abhisaṅkhāra that leads to adverse outcomes.
- Javana cittā arise in pancadvara cittā vithi and manodvāra cittā vithi when the object (ārammaṇa) is evident and robust; see, “Citta Vithi – Processing of Sense Inputs.”
Vipāka Cittā Do Not Have Javana Power
2. Out of the 54 types of cittā in the kāma loka (the 11 lower realms including the human realm), 29 are javana cittā: 12 akusala cittā, eight mahā kusala cittā, eight mahā kiriya cittā, and the functional smile-producing cittā (the latter nine cittā only for an Arahant).
- A kusala citta generates power for rebirth in the human or above realm and helps progress towards Nibbāna or “cooling down.”
- When one does an akusala cittā, one generates power to form kammic energy for rebirth in the apāyā (lowest four realms).
- Thus for average human beings, there are only 20 cittā out of 54 that are javana cittā: 12 for doing evil deeds and 8 for good deeds (here deeds means thought, speech, or bodily action).
- Thus, vipāka cittā do not have javana cittā. Therefore, in detecting any sensory input (seeing, hearing, etc.), javana cittā is absent. They are parittārammana (slight) and atiparittārammana (very slight) cittā vithi. However, based on these vipāka citta vithi, we MAY instantly initiate potent atimahantārammana (very high) and mahantārammana (great) cittā vithi that will have javana cittā in them.
- Therefore, if we start making plans (buy that picture, re-listen to that song, etc.) based on those visuals, sounds, etc., then subsequent citta vithi will have javana cittā in them, leading to abhisaṅkhāra (GENERATE kammic power).
Javana Power Depends on the Type of Citta
3. Not all akusala javana cittā have the same power. Also, see “How to Evaluate Weights of Different Kamma” and “12. Key Factors to be Considered when “Meditating” for the Sotāpaññā Stage.”
- Out of the eight greed-rooted cittā, those four done with pleasure (somanassa-sahagata) are more robust than the done with neutral feeling.
- Next, those associated with micchā diṭṭhi (or diṭṭhi-sahagata) are more powerful than the four generated without wrong vision (or diṭṭhi-vippayutta).
- The power of greed-rooted cittā depends on whether they arose spontaneously (sometimes erroneously labeled as asaṅkhārika) or occurred intending to receive something in return, i.e., sasaṅkhārika.
- The two hate-rooted akusala cittā always arise with displeasure and are associated with aversion (dislike.) One that is spontaneous (unprompted) is stronger than the prompted.
- The two ignorance-rooted akusala cittā always arise with neutral feelings. The one based on vicikicchā is stronger than that based on uddhacca.
Javana Strength of Akusala Citta
4. The above list gives the order of strength of the akusala cittā and appears in that order in “Conditions for the Four Stages of Nibbāna.”
- Thus the first lobha cittā that is “connected with the wrong view, accompanied by pleasure” or in Pāli, “somanassa-sahagata, diṭṭhi-sampayutta cittā” is the strongest akusala javana cittā.
- The last of the 12 akusala cittā is “one accompanied by equanimity and associated with high-mindedness” or, in Pāli, “upekkha-sahagata uddhacca-sampayutta cittā.”
Javana Strength of Kusala Citta
5. The power of the human mind can work both ways, for the good or the bad. Now let us see how the eight mahā kusala (wholesome) cittā rank according to the javana power.
- Here again, four done with a joyous heart (somanassa-sahagata) take precedence over those done with neutral feeling.
- Next, those done with knowledge, called “ñāṇa-sampayutta,” have higher power compared to those done without knowledge (ñāṇa-vippayutta). Here, knowledge could be at two levels: (i) understanding how the laws of kamma work and (ii) understanding anicca, dukkha, and anatta in addition to (i).
- Finally, they are sorted by whether the response is spontaneous (higher- merits) or prompted/induced by an expectation of a profit (sasaṅkhārika.)
6. Thus, the most potent kusala cittā is “one accompanied by joy, associated with knowledge” or in Pāli, “somanassa-sahagata, ñāṇa-sampayutta cittā.” Here one does a good deed with a complete understanding of its benefits and thus with a joyous heart. The action is spontaneous and joyful BECAUSE one is fully aware of its ethical consequences. Since it is automatic, the knowledge must be in one’s mind.
- The weakest kusala cittā is “one accompanied by the neutral mind, dissociated with knowledge, and for one’s advantage” or in Pāli, “upekkha-sahagata, ñāṇa-vippayutta, sasaṅkhārika cittā.” Here one may do a good deed without knowledge and on the prompting of others or after some deliberation. Such acts will bring benefits, but since they have less javana power, the benefits are less.
Some Examples of “Javana Power”
7. Let us take some examples for clarification.
- Some people are so deep on the wrong path that they enjoy committing evil deeds. Or, they get into a mindset where such deeds become enjoyable. We have heard of a person killed by multiple stabbings with the body gruesomely mutilated. Such an act is the worst of the worst.
- It should be easy to imagine why the javana for cittā associated with such “passionate” killings are very intense. The killer is absorbed in that act and is generating potent mental power to carry out the physical act; by the way, any physical activity originates in cittā. Thoughts lead to actions. See, “Neuroscience says there is no Free Will? – That is a Misinterpretation“.
- That is also why a kamma becomes a “kamma patha” or a “strong kamma” for bodily action. See “Details of Kamma – Intention, Who Is Affected, Kamma Patha.” One needs a strong javana to carry out that task. If one is aware of the consequences of such acts (i.e., do not have micchā diṭṭhi or wrong vision), then even if one started stabbing, one may likely catch oneself and stop.
8. Conversely, even the smallest act of kindness can bring many benefits if done with complete understanding and a joyous heart. Here the “mental power” or the javana comes through knowledge. We see these kinds of ‘small acts of kindness” all the time, and we can even share in those merits when our hearts become joyful too.
- Writing a check for a lot of money is easy for a wealthy person. If done to get publicity or due to “outside pressure,” it would not bring many benefits. If a poor person shares what they can with another in a worse situation with joy, that will bring much more benefit.
Saṃvega – Indication of Jovana Strength
9. High javana power manifests as “sanvega” (san + vega, where “vega” means fast) or one’s emotions. See, “What is “San”? – Meaning of Sansara” for the meaning of “san”). Therefore, “saṁvega” depicts a potent emotional condition. If it is for the “good,” one will be doing puññābhi saṅkhāra (meritorious acts), and an evil deed done with “saṁvega” will be a potent apuññābhi saṅkhāra (immoral actions).
- In the literature, “sanvega” is commonly written as “saṃvega”; as with many other such words, replacing “san” with “saṃ” leads to distortion of the meaning of the word. Other such misspelled words are saṃsāra, samvedanā, saṃyoga, and saṃvara; see, “What is “San”? – Meaning of Sansara“.
- However, some words like “sammā” (“san” + “mā”) are correct because that is phonetically correct.
- In the Sinhala language, “saṁvega” is commonly used to describe emotionally intense situations, mostly sad situations. However, we can see that it can apply to any emotional situation.
Emotions Felt Close to the Heart, Not in the Brain
10. The mind and the heart are in close contact. Even that person who derived pleasure by stabbing someone many times will have a heavy heart until death, no matter how bad a person they are. It is in human nature. Of course, when we do a meritorious act, too, we feel joy in our hearts.
- We “feel” close to the heart because citta arises in the “hadaya vatthu” close to the physical heart. The hadaya vatthu is in the manomaya kaya, like an “energy field” spread through the physical body. See “Manomaya Kaya (Gandhabba) and the Physical Body” and “Ghost in the Machine – Synonym for the Manomaya Kaya?“.
Jovana Strength Depends on the Level of Desire (Good or Bad)
11. The javana power in our thoughts significantly affects “how engaged we are.” The potency of a good or an immoral cittā depends on the strength of the desire to get it done. Three out of four bases of mental power, chanda, cittā, and viriya, originate due to this effect; see “The Four Bases of Mental Power (Satara Iddhipada).”
- And the fourth factor of vīmaṃsa (reasoning/investigation) is vital because that is how one gains the all-important ñāṇa (wisdom); see #5,#6 above. When one truly comprehends anicca, dukkha, and anatta, that leads to the cultivation/growth of the paññā cetasika, reducing ignorance (avijjā).
It Is Good to “Re-live” Past Good Experiences
12. Another thing that comes out of this analysis is that it is good to contemplate the past good deeds and “re-live” that experience to gain citta pasāda, or a joyful mind.
- Similarly, it is NOT good to do that for past evil deeds. It is better to forget them and get a new start. If something like that comes to the mind, focus the mind on a good deed.
- That is part of “Ānapāna.” We need to keep and cultivate “good things” and “discard” bad things; see, “What is Änapäna?“.
- Our thoughts are what ultimately matter, and they arise due to our character (gati); the more we do “Ānapānasati” correctly, the more our “gati” will change for the better.
- Finally, These javana cittā have the power to produce suddhāṭṭhaka, the fundamental building blocks of rupa; see “The Origin of Matter – Suddhashtaka.”
Next, “Cuti-Patisandhi – An Abhidhamma Description“, …………