February 25, 2017; revised January 3, 2018; September 23, 2018; November 1, 2018; July 25, 2019
1. “Mental formations” and “formations” are the conventional translations for sankhāra. Certainly, the former is a better translation. But it is much better to grasp the idea of sankhāra and just use that word. I recommend the same for most key Pāli words like saññā and viññāna.
- It comes from “san” + “khāra” or actions that involve “san“; see, “What is “San”? Meaning of Sansāra (or Samsāra)“.
- However, all sankhāra arise in mind. When they lead to conscious thinking or speech, they are called vaci sankhāra. Those that lead to bodily actions are kāya sankhāra; those that arise automatically in mind are manō sankhāra.
- Therefore, “san” is associated with anything that one is thinking about doing or doing.
- Sankhāra are responsible for just getting things done to live the current life (everyday activities). They can also lead to moral/immoral actions that can bring results (vipāka) in future lives.
- The latter type (those that can bring vipāka in future) are called strong sankhāra or abhisankhāra.
2. Let us look at some examples now.
- Thinking about going to the bathroom is a vaci sankhāra (kammically neutral). One gets the body to move to the toilet using kāya sankhāra.
- Thinking about killing a human being and carrying it out is a sankhāra with great kammic consequences or a vaci abhisankhāra; doing the actual killing is done with kāya abhisankhāra. Such vaci and kāya abhisankhāra are apunna abhisankhāra (or apunnābhisankhāra). They can lead to a birth in the apāyās.
- On the other hand, punna abhisankhāra (or punnābhisankhāra) (thoughts responsible for proper speech and actions) have good kammic consequences and can lead to “good births.” Even more importantly, they are essential for making progress on the Path.
- Good or bad kammā are done via those types of sankhāra. They can bring results (kamma vipāka) immediately, in this life, or in future lives. However, not all kammā lead to kamma vipāka; see, “What is Kamma? – Is Everything Determined by Kamma?“.
3. The word sankhāra is commonly used to indicate those with kammic consequences, as in “avijjā paccayā sankhāra“, where it really means, “avijjā paccayā apunnābhi sankhāra” or “avijjā paccayā punnābhi sankhāra“.
- Here abhi sankhāra means “strong sankhāra”, and the word apunnābhi comes from “apunna” + “abhi“, which combine to rhyme as apunnābhi. Here “apunna” means “bad” or “immoral”.Thus,apunnābhi sankhāra means strong immoral sankhāra.
- In the same way, punna + abhi + sankhāra becomes punnābhi sankhāra (for strong good sankhāra).
- So, one really needs to pay attention to exactly what meaning need to be taken in a given case.
4. All our thoughts, speech, and bodily actions are based on sankhāra that arise in mind. Therefore, it is essential to realize that vaci sankhāra and kāya sankhāra also arise in mind. One speaks and acts based on those such thoughts.
- Sankhāra are thoughts. Kammā are actions based on such thoughts.
- Kāya sankhāra are “conscious thoughts” that make our bodies move. Killing, stealing, and sexual misconduct are due to apunnābhi kāya sankhāra.
- Vaci sankhāra are “conscious thoughts that we silently generate” and also those thoughts that lead to a speech by moving the lips, tongue, etc. Hate speech is due to apunnābhi vaci sankhāra. Thinking about a Dhamma concept is a punnābhi vaci sankhāra; see, “Correct Meaning of Vacī Sankhāra.”
- On the other hand, manō sankhāra are “unconscious thoughts” that arise automatically. We are not aware of when they appear. They arise due to our gati (character/habits) and can indicate our level of mōha or avijjā. Since they arise unconsciously, manō sankhāra are unlikely to be abhisankhāra that have substantial kammic consequences.
- The fact that cetanā plays a vital role is evident when we look at the following definitions: “kāya sancetanā kāya sankhāra,” “vaci sancetanā vaci sankhāra,” and “manō sancetanā manō sankhāra.”
5. Let us take some examples to illustrate these three types of sankhāra.
- To move the physical body, the mind, or the mental body or the gandhabba must first generate thoughts about moving the body. Then that thought is executed with the help of the brain that sends necessary signals to the leg muscles, say, to move the legs.
- So, those kāya sankhāra are responsible for moving the legs. Now, if the purpose of moving the body was to go somewhere to commit an evil deed, then it becomes an apunna abhisankhāra. These thoughts would have asōbhana cetasika (like greed or hate) in them.
- If the purpose were to go somewhere to do a good deed, then it would become a punnābhi sankhāra. These thoughts would have sōbhana cetasika (like faith and compassion) in them.
- If the purpose were to go the bathroom (kammically neutral), then it would be just a kāya sankhāra, not an abhisankhāra. Breathing involves moving body parts (lungs), done without conscious thinking, but they are kāya sankhāra too. Those thoughts would not have sōbhana or asōbhana cetasika in them.
- Therefore, the kammic nature of an act is decided by the intention that is in mind, i.e., type of cetasika (mental factors) that arise with those thoughts; see, “What is Intention in Kamma?“.
6. Now, if a person gets angry at another person, he may not move any body parts, but may generate evil thoughts like: “I wish I could hit this person right now”. Those are vaci sankhāra; see, “Correct Meaning of Vacī Sankhāra.”
- When those vaci sankhāra build-up energy, one may say those words out. They are still called vaci sankhāra.
- Whether one is just talking to oneself or speaks out such evil words, they are both apunna abhisankhāra.
- Of course, vaci sankhāra can be punna abhisankhāra too. Person X watching a good deed by person Y may be generating good thoughts about Y; those are punna vaci sankhāra.
- Those also will be distinguished by the type of cetasika as in kāya sankhāra above.
7. Whether vaci or kāya sankhāra, if they have asōbhana cetasika in them, they tend to “heat up” or “stress” the mind (Pali word is “thāpa“).
- On the other hand, if sōbhana cetasika arise as vaci or kāya sankhāra, they tend to “cool” a mind.
- In the earlier post, “What Are Kilesa (Mental Impurities)? – Connection to Cetasika “, it was discussed in detail why understanding this fact is the pre-requisite for the Satipattana bhāvanā; see, “Satipattana Sutta – Relevance to Suffering in This Life,” and “Satipatthāna Sutta – Structure.”
- Just by comprehending this fact, one can start cultivating nirāmisa sukha.
8. All other thoughts that arise in mind without conscious thinking are manō sankhāra.
- For example, when one gets hit by a cane, say, one feels the pain associated with it, and one realizes that another person hitting with a cane caused the pain. So, the manō sankhāra that arise at the beginning have two cetasika of saññā (recognition of what happened) and vēdanā (pain caused). Another way to say it: manō sankhāra are involved in the vipāka stage.
- However, based on that “sense input” of getting hit, now one could start generating vaci sankhāra and even kāya sankhāra. Those vaci sankhāra may involve just creating evil thoughts about that person or saying bad things to him. If the pain was intense, one might start generating bad kāya sankhāra and hit that person.
9. So, it is essential to realize that all of the following involve thoughts: automatically thinking (manō sankhāra), “just talking to oneself” or speaking out (vaci sankhāra), or using the body movements (kāya sankhāra).
- Those thoughts arise in the gandhabba (mental body), and become the commands to the brain to carry out the tasks of speaking and body movement. That is how the mental body (gandhabba) controls the physical body; see, “Our Mental Body – Gandhabba.”
10. Those initial manō sankhāra are automatically in mind due to one’s gati. Then subsequent vaci and kāya sankhāra are generated, and we do have control over those; see, for example, “Correct Meaning of Vacī Sankhāra.”
- So, the seeds for thinking, speaking, and acting start at the instant of the first sense input, say, seeing something or hearing something that gets one’s attention.
- If the sense input is substantial (and one gets interested in it via like or dislike), one will start many such citta vithi in a short time. This leads to corresponding vaci and kāya sankhāra to “talk to oneself,” speak out, or to do bodily actions.
11. Without getting into details, conscious thinking that could lead to speaking and physical actions occur in the seven javana citta in a citta vithi.
- Vaci or kāya sankhāra arise due to many citta vithi running one after another. As we discussed previously, billions of citta vithi can run in a second; see, “Amazingly Fast Time Evolution of a Thought (Citta).”
- Another critical point is that the javana citta in subsequent citta vithi get stronger and stronger. This is why when we start thinking about a person that we like or dislike, we can keep generating increasingly stronger feelings about the situation.
- Sometimes, we can see people getting angry by the minute. They are generating a lot of vaci sankhāra even without getting a word out. But one can see the person getting highly agitated: the face gets red and facial expression can show how angry he/she has become.
12. Therefore, even if we may start generating vaci and kāya sankhāra, we may not become aware of it for a short time. If one gets angry, one may lose control and may not even realize that one is getting into a bad situation.
- “Catching oneself early” in the process of becoming angry is the key to control anger management. When one understands how this process happens and that it can escalate quickly into a bad situation, one can determine to catch it earlier next time.
- We can prevent a lot of suffering in this life by catching such vaci and kāya sankhāra early.
- As we discussed in the desana in the post, “Satipattana Sutta – Relevance to Suffering in This Life,” this is the key to ānāpāna and satipatthāna bhāvanā.
13. In a previous post, “Vedana – What It Really Means,” we discussed how “samphassa jā vēdanā” could arise in our minds after initial vipāka vēdanā.
- Those “samphassa jā vēdanā” arise when we generate vaci sankhāra and kāya sankhāra as a result of the initial vipāka vēdanā.
- Those “samphassa jā vēdanā” are all made by us consciously. However, for someone who has not cultivated satipatthāna or ānāpāna (the correct versions), this may not be obvious.
14. If one is mindful, one could see for oneself when one starts consciously having good or bad thoughts about sensory input. With practice, one can “catch oneself” before generating too many “samphassa jā vēdanā” or — to say the same thing differently — before making a lot of vaci or kāya sankhāra.
- This concept may need a bit of thinking, but let us take some examples to clarify.
15. We first need to pay attention to those “samphassa jā vēdanā” that arise due to immoral thoughts, i.e., due to immoral vaci and kāya sankhāra.
- Suppose person X starts generating bad vaci sankhāra because he is verbally abused by enemy Y. Those vaci sankhāra give rise to a “bad state of mind” or domanassa via “samphassa jā vēdanā.” If the situation escalates, stronger vaci sankhāra, i.e., thoughts of hitting Y, may arise and may lead to kāya sankhāra for hitting Y.
16. On the other hand, when one is eating delicious food, one will taste it as pleasant, whether one is an average human or an Arahant. It is a “kāma guna” associated with the human realm; see, “Kāma Guna, Kāma, Kāma Rāga, Kāmaccanda.” That is not an immoral thought.
- The difference is that while an average human will have a craving (tanhā) for that food, an Arahant will not.
- One generates manō sankhāra automatically based on one’s gati. Then, conscious vaci sankhāra and kāya sankhāra lead to the critical upādāna (willingly binding) stage; see, “Difference Between Tanhā and Upādāna.”
17. All this is put together at the viññāna stage. The discussion on viññāna will complete our simplified explanation on the four aggregates that are associated with the mind or the mental body, gandhabba; see, “Viññāna Aggregate.”
- Furthermore, we will see that vēdanā (excluding “samphassa jā vēdanā“) and saññā are associated with manō sankhāra, which arise automatically due to kamma vipāka.
- Starting with those manō sankhāra, we then consciously generate vaci and kāya sankhāra initiating new kamma. Furthermore, “samphassa jā vēdanā” arise during that process.
- When a kamma vipāka, in turn, leads to making new kamma (thus giving rise to more kamma vipāka), the whole process repeats itself over and over. This is how the rebirth process rolls on forever unless one determines to stop initiating new kamma, especially strong immoral kamma via apunnābhi vaci and kāya sankhāra.
18. I recently came across the following “wise words” on the internet:
- Watch your thoughts; they become words.
- Watch your words; they become actions.
- Watch your actions; they become habits.
- Watch your habits; they become your character.
- Watch your character; it becomes your destiny.
Those statements summarize what I have been trying to explain above and also in posts on Paticca Samuppāda. Our thoughts or sankhāra define and guide our destiny.
Difference between sankhāra and dhammā at, “Difference Between Dhammā and Sankhāra.”