Difference Between Dhammā and Saṅkhāra

Revised March 22, 2017; April 17, 2017; November 5, 2017; July 19, 2018; August 9, 2019; January 11, 2020; June 7, 2022 (#8)


We will discuss the difference between saṅkhāra, saṅkhata, and dhammā. Some of the descriptions given here are not compatible with meanings given in many current  Theravada texts. However, they are fully compatible with the Tipiṭaka. Please send me a comment ([email protected]) if you find evidence to the contrary.

  • First, it is essential to remember that the word “dhamma” can mean somewhat different things in different contexts. In “Buddha Dhamma,” it means the “Buddha’s teachings.”
  • Dhammā (with a long “a” at the end) is mostly used to indicate energy created by the mind. It is also called a kamma bija.
  • But “sabbe dhammā” in “sabbe dhammā anattā” includes everything, all phenomena belonging to this world of 31 realms. Nibbāna is not in this world, as discussed below.
  • I always give links to other posts. If one needs more information or clarification, one should read them. That will make the concept “really sink in.”
Famous Dhammapada verses

1. There is confusion about the terms saṅkhāra and dhammā in the Dhammapada verses 277,278, and 279; the first lines in those three verses are:

  • Sabbē saṅkhāra aniccā or “all saṅkhāra are anicca (they give rise to saṅkhata that we cannot maintain to our satisfaction in the long run). A better way to say it is that it is futile to seek a “permanent happy existence” in the rebirth process. Of course, we must make necessary plans to live this life.
  • Sabbē saṅkhāra dukkhā or “all saṅkhāra eventually lead to dukkha (suffering).”
  • Sabbē dhammā anattā or “all dhammā are without substance (not fruitful) at the end.”
Sankhārā Are Our Thoughts

2. Sankhārā are involved in thinking, speaking, and acting based on our intentions, hopes, and dreams. It is essential to realize that sankhārā are our current thoughts.

  • “Sankhāra” include all three types (kāya saṅkhāra, vaci saṅkhāra, manō saṅkhāra) that lead to any action, speech, or just thought (in that order). They all arise in citta (our thoughts).
  • We say “Hello” to someone with vaci saṅkhāra. If we walk from the living room to the kitchen to get a drink, that is done with kāya saṅkhāra. But those do not initiate kamma vipāka and are kammically neutral. But if we verbally abuse someone, that is done with strong vaci saṅkhāra (abhisaṅkhāra), and that will have kamma vipāka.
  • More on saṅkhāra at, “Saṅkhāra – What It Really Means.”
Saṅkhāra Give Rise to Saṅkhata

3. Strong saṅkhāra (or abhisaṅkhāra) that we generate may lead to the arising of an inert object or a living form. It leads to the arising of a saṅkhata.

  • If someone comes up with the idea of building a house, then the following steps may happen. He will carefully think about it (manō saṅkhāra, vaci saṅkhāra) and may talk about it with others (vaci saṅkhāra). If he decides to do it, then he may take action (kāya saṅkhāra) to make it happen. In this case, our saṅkhāra gave rise to a house, and that house is a saṅkhata.

4. When we do something with the body (i.e., body movement), that is controlled by kāya saṅkhāra that arises in our minds.

  • We are not robots (most lower animals are like robots). We can control our thoughts, speech, and actions. Sometimes we may do things automatically. But if we want to, we can change our speech or actions. Just try it out.
  • When we speak or talk to ourselves, that involves vaci saṅkhāra; those also arise in our minds; see, “Correct Meaning of Vacī Saṅkhāra.”
  • Mano saṅkhāra are thoughts that arise automatically (due to kamma vipāka and our “gati“).

5. Building a house in #3 above may not involve moral/immoral intentions. One may not generate strong saṅkhāra (called abhisaṅkhāra) that can create kamma bija (dhammā), that can bring kamma vipāka in the future. Building a house is just a kammically-neutral action.

  • However, planning to kill a human, for example, involves manō saṅkhāra and vaci saṅkhāra (in the planning stage) and then doing it with kāya saṅkhāra.
  • In this case, all those saṅkhāra are abhisaṅkhāra, that can bring future bad kamma vipāka, in the form of rebirth in the apāyā, which includes the animal realm.
Abhisaṅkhāra Are Strong Saṅkhāra

6. Abhisaṅkhāra (potent or strong saṅkhāra) give rise to kamma bija, which are also part of dhammā. These are energies created by javana citta; see, “Javana of a Citta – The Root of Mental Power.” They can bring kamma vipāka.

  • At the moment of death, such a strong kamma bija or a dhammā comes to the mind via “manañca paṭicca dhammē ca uppajjāti manōviññāṇaṃ.” That new viññāna is the patisandhi viññāna for the new life; see, “What are rūpa? – Dhammā are rūpa too!“.
  • Therefore, now a new life is formed as a result of that abhisaṅkhāra. This new lifeform is also a saṅkhata because it arose due to that abhisaṅkhāra.

7. That saṅkhata came into existence because of that abhisaṅkhāra during that immoral act. It came to life at a later time via kamma vipāka

  • Moral abhisaṅkhāra or puñña abhisaṅkhāra lead to good kamma bija/dhammā that will lead to good rebirths (in human, dēva, and Brahma realms).
  • Immoral abhisaṅkhāra or apuñña abhisaṅkhāra lead to bad kamma bija/dhammā that will lead to unfortunate rebirths (in the apāyās).
  • That is the link between mind and matter. Aabhisaṅkhāra that arose in the mind led to the saṅkhata, which is a rūpa (made of inert matter).
  • That house in #3 was built using existing rūpa. But it is also possible to “create” new matter if one has abhiññā powers. Both are called saṅkhata.
All Rūpa Are Saṅkhata

8. Any rūpa (including visible objects, sounds, smells, tastes, and body touches) that we experience in this world is a saṅkhata, and they all undergo unpredictable change and eventually are destroyed.

  • The point is that we make our future via our actions, speech, and thoughts; these are (abhi)saṅkhāra.
  • However, any of these new saṅkhata will not last forever. Even if one is born in dēva or Brahma realms, kammic energy will run out one day. Then one will be directed to the next birth depending on the most potent kamma bija/dhammā present at that time.
  • The only difference is that one will be subjected to much suffering in the apāyā, while one will get to enjoy a “good life” in a higher realm. We all have been going through this “unending journey through most of the 31 realms,” which does not have a traceable beginning.
No Rūpa (Saṅkhata)Can Be Maintained in the Way We Like

9. Another critical point is that the net result of all these “journeys through various realms” is suffering. We tend to do more immoral things in “seeking pleasure” and are born mostly in the apāyā.

  • Any saṅkhata that we make for ourselves (whether it is a house or a new life in the dēva realm) cannot be maintained to our satisfaction in the long run. The home will need repairs and may even get burned down or flooded. A new life in the dēva realm will end one day, and one will be back to square one.
  • That is why it is said that “Sabbē saṅkhāra aniccā.” It is there because any saṅkhata (that arise due to abhisaṅkhāra) has a finite lifetime and is subjected to unexpected changes (viparināma) during that existence.
That Anicca Nature Leads to Suffering

10. When we don’t get to maintain things to our satisfaction, we suffer. Even if one makes a billion dollars and has a lovely family, one will have to leave all that behind when one dies. But even before that, there could be many other instances where one suffers (deaths of friends/family, diseases, loss of property, etc.). That is the viparināma nature that arises due to anicca nature.

  • And the root cause of that suffering is saṅkhāra (more correctly abhisaṅkhāra). That is why it is said, “Sabbē saṅkhāra dukkhā.”
  • Again, sankhārā are our CURRENT thoughts; as soon as those thoughts go past, they become nāmagotta or memories.

11. The only thing not destroyed is nāmagotta, which are just records of “all events” (saṅkhāra and abhisaṅkhāra) of any given lifestream; see, “What Reincarnates? – Concept of a Lifestream“.

  • All these different terms could be confusing at first. They will all make sense eventually because they are all pieces of a big puzzle.
Nibbāna Not Included in dhammā

12. Ven. Walpola Rahula Thero, in his famous and otherwise excellent book, “What the Buddha Taught,” did not get it right when he interpreted those verses. He included Nibbāna in dhammā (p. 57 of 1974 edition). He took the difference between dhammā and saṅkhāra to be Nibbāna.

  • But as you can see, saṅkhāra and dhammā are two different entities. Saṅkhāra is what we generate in our minds.
  • Strong saṅkhāra or abhisaṅkhāra lead to the creation of kammic energy, and that is a dhammā or a kamma bija.
  • However, there are many dhammā other than kamma bija, and the only abhisaṅkhāra lead to kamma bija. But both saṅkhāra or abhisaṅkhāra lead to memory records or nāmagotta. Also, dhammā includes concepts and even Buddha Dhamma.

13. Furthermore, Nibbāna does not belong to this world. Therefore, to say Nibbāna is anatta is a terrible mistake. There are four ultimate realities (paramatthathō): Thoughts (citta), mental factors (cētasika), matter (rūpa), and Nibbāna. 

  • The first three can describe everything “in this world.” Nibbāna does not belong to “this world.”
  • Furthermore, anatta is also mistranslated as just “no-self.” The problems with the traditional interpretation of anicca, dukkha, anatta are discussed in “Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta – Wrong Interpretations.”
Nāmagotta are Permanent

14. When we do abhisaṅkhāra (strong types of saṅkhāra), that lead to the formation of good or bad kamma bija, or dhammā. That strong kamma bija can lead to the arising of a saṅkhata (living beings and even inert things).

  • And nāmagotta (pronounced “nāma goththā”) are just records of what happened.

15. Unlike saṅkhāra, kamma bija, and saṅkhata, nāmagotta are PERMANENT (they are only records). As stated in the “Najīrati Sutta (SN 1.76)“: “Rūpaṃ jīrati maccānaṃ, nāmagottaṃ na jīrati,” or “material things decay and get destroyed, but nāmagotta do not decay.”

  • That is why someone with abhiññā powers can go back at any point in time to recall past events; also see “Recent Evidence for Unbroken Memory Records (HSAM).”
  • Whenever we do something (a saṅkhāra), a “record” (“nāmagotta“) of it is made. Thus for a given sentient being, a record of all activities from the beginning-less time survives and is one’s nāmagotta. All previous lives and all activities of past lives are in that “record stream,” like a movie reel (not physical, of course).
  • Someone who has developed abhiññā through anariya jhānā can trace back that nāma gottā for several past lives. But with well-developed abhiññā powers, one can probe a much deeper history. A Buddha can trace back as far back as he pleases with astonishing speed. (Yet he could not see “a beginning” to any sentient being’s nāmagotta. That is why there is no traceable beginning to the rebirth process.)

16. It is easier to explain this “nāmagotta” with an example. Let us take two popular US presidents, John Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. Their “physical bodies” are no longer with us, i.e., their “rūpa” or physical bodies (which were saṅkhata) decayed long ago. But their nāmagotta are with us to a certain extent. How much of their memories or “nāmagotta” remains with a given person depends on how closely they are associated with them. The moment we say “John Kennedy” or “Ronald Reagan,” their picture comes to mind. Not only that, those who met them may remember that vividly and probably can recall that event just like watching a movie.

  • Similarly, we can recall many of the “events” of our lives or parts of our “nāmagotta“; some young children can remember some events in their “nāmagotta” in their previous lives.
  • What can be done with abhiññā powers is very similar. The abhiññā capabilities enormously stretch the memory or the ability to “look back” at past events in one’s nāmagotta.
Anatta Nature

17. We are subjected to suffering because we make saṅkhāra (or plans), and since they do not work out in the LONG RUN. Therefore, those saṅkhāra lead to dukkha at the end, and thus to helplessness in the long run (anatta).

  • But nāmagotta or other types of dhammā does not lead to suffering. Therefore,  dhammā do not have the characteristics of anicca and dukkha.
  • But there is nothing substantial to be had with dhammā, too; they are also anatta.

18. The Buddha’s last words were, “Vaya dhammā saṅkhāra, appamādena sampādēta.” Everything in this world (including saṅkhāra) is dhammā. Only “saṅkhāra are vaya dhammā, i.e., those that lead to one’s demise (i.e., lead to adverse outcomes). Therefore, the Buddha instructed us to “sort out such ‘san’ without delay” (“san” “pādēta,” which rhymes as “sampādēta“).

  • Vaya” means destruction; here, it means leading to the destruction of one’s future: saṅkhāra are vaya dhammā.
  • Sankhārā are those these three types (manō, vaci, and kāya saṅkhāra) that lead to “san” for extending sansāra; see, “What is “San”? – Meaning of Sansara (or Samsara)“.
  • Thus the Buddha was admonishing the bhikkhus that all saṅkhāra are “vaya dhammā” (those leading to adverse outcomes), and therefore to comprehend what saṅkhāra are.

19. In the “Najirati Sutta (SN 1.76)“, the nature of nāmagotta is clearly stated:

  • Rūpaṃ jīrati maccānaṃ, nāmagottaṃ na jīrati,” or, “material things are subject to decay or jirati (pronounced “jeerathi“) and death or destruction (maccanam; pronounced ‘machchānam”), but nāmagotta do not decay.
  • The “rūpa” of those two US presidents we mentioned earlier have decayed and gone. But their nāmagotta remain with us. We can access our nāmagotta with memory. Someone with abhiññā powers can look at a complete nāmagotta not only spanning a current life but also going back to many lives. All of our nāmagotta, back to a beginning-less time, are there whether accessed or not.

20. Dhammā are causes (energies) that we create with our minds with javana power (via abhisaṅkhāra.)  Dhammā means “to bear.” In fact, we create things that will bring NET suffering. Thus, they are without any substance. Nāmagotta and paññāti or concepts are also without any substance. They are all anatta. There is no point in “hanging on to them.”

  • Even Buddha Dhamma, which enables us to attain Nibbāna, should ultimately be abandoned (at Arahanthood). The Buddha compared Buddha Dhamma to a raft that one uses to cross a river. Once one crosses the river, there is no point in carrying the raft on one’s back. So, even Buddha Dhamma is of value only until one reaches Nibbāna.
  • Only Nibbāna, which is attained by “giving up EVERYTHING in this material world,” is atta or “of value”; see, “Anatta – the Opposite of Which Atta?” and “Dasa Akusala and Anatta – The Critical Link.”

More information on the connection between dhammā, kamma bīja, and patisandhi viññāna is at, “Dhammā, Kamma, Saṅkhāra, Mind – Critical Connections.”

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