June 29, 2019; revised July 1, 2019 (comment added at the end)
1. Our world views are first formed by our families. Most people just keep those views during their whole lifetimes. A good example is one’s religion.
- With the advent of the internet, this is changing. Now, people are exposed to many world views, and can learn about different world views and decide for themselves which one(s) make more sense.
- Still, the basic mindset instilled at a young age can have a long-lasting effect. This is why it is important to make sure that our children are not exposed to “bad influences”, especially bad friends.
2. In the terminology of the Buddha, one’s “gati” (habits/character qualities) are determined by one’s world views and vice versa. Furthermore, whether one acts with avijjā (ignorance) at any given time depends on one’s gati. In simple terms, “good gati” are associated with Sammā Diṭṭhi (correct views) and “bad gati” are associated with micchā diṭṭhi (wrong views).
- This is why Sammā Diṭṭhi comes first in the both the mundane and Noble Eightfold Paths.
- The basic concepts are discussed in, “Āsava, Anusaya, and Gati (Gathi)” and the posts referred to there.
- This is also true at the deeper level; see, #8 of “Sakkāya Diṭṭhi and Tilakkhana.” One’s gati can lead to specific future births.
3. Gati are carried from from life-to-life. However, gati are FORMED mainly during human lives.
- If a human cultivates an “animal gati“, that human is likely to be born as that animal in the next life (or a future life). This is explained clearly in the “Kukkuravatika Sutta (MN 57)” (English translation there: “The Dog-Duty Ascetic (MN 57)“). There the Buddha explains how those “dog gati” that Seniya was cultivating would lead to him being born a dog.
- Similarly, a human who cultivates “deva gati” by cultivating saṅkhāra that are good and moral (puññābhisaṅkhāra) — and thus engages in such thoughts, speech, and actions — that human is likely to be born a deva.
- A human is born with a certain set of gati acquired in past lives as a human. But a human CAN change those gati by WILLFULLY cultivating different types of saṅkhāra (and thus one’s actions). In particular, a human can cultivate “Ariya gati” by cultivating the Noble Eightfold Path (which means cultivating puññābhisaṅkhāra AND by comprehending Tilakkhana).
4. A human baby has similar gati to his/her parents. That is not an accident. Normally a gandhabba with gati similar to those of the parents can take possession of the zygote in mother’s womb that was formed by the union of mother and father; see, “Buddhist Explanations of Conception, Abortion, and Contraception“.
- This is another reason that a child would likely to maintain the gati (and thus world views, religion, behavior patterns) of the parents.
- However, if the child comes under the strong influence of a bad set of friends, those gati can change for the worse. We discussed an example of a teenager transforming to a drug addict/gang member in our discussion of Paṭicca Samuppāda; see, “Phassa paccayā Vēdanā….to Bhava“.
- In the same way, that teenager could have been pointed in the right direction if, for example, the parents themselves started following the Noble Path, and encouraged the teenager to do the same.
- Therefore, one’s environment (whom one associates with) can have a major impact on one’s gati. This is true for adults too, but children can be easily influenced. This is why one MUST associate with people with “good and moral gati“.
5. In the “Mangala Sutta (Snp 2.4)“, a deva comes to the Buddha and asks, “what are the highest auspicious deeds to be cultivated (“brūhi maṅgalamuttamaṃ”); here, “maṅgalamuttamaṃ” is “mangalam + uttamam”, where “mangala” means “auspicious” and “uttama” means “highest”).
- The very first auspicious deed listed by the Buddha is: “Asevanā ca bālānaṃ, paṇḍitānañca sevanā..” OR, “not to associate with ignorant people (bāla) and to associate with the wise (paṇḍita)”.
- In the above I have translated “sēvana” as “to associate” and “asēvana” as “not to associate”. A better description would be, “to get advice from and to follow” and “not to get advice from or to follow”. Sometimes it is not possible to stop “associating” with a group of people, even if they have bad character qualities. For example, such people may be there at one’s workplace, and it is not possible to stop interacting with them. However, one does not have to follow their bad opinions/world views.
- In the same way, just by “associating with an Ariya” does not necessarily qualify as “paṇḍitānañca sevanā”. For example, there were many people who associated closely with the Buddha himself (Devadatta and King of Kosala, for example), who did not profit from that association: Devadatta was born in the apāyā, and the King of Kosala failed to become a Sōtapanna.
6. Of course, it is prudent to minimize interactions with those with micchā diṭṭhi. However, this again depends on the context.
- For example, many prominent scientists have “ucchēda diṭṭhi“, that the physical body is all one has, and life ends at the death of the physical body. This is one of the two major wrong views associated with sakkāya diṭṭhi (that blocks the Sōtapanna stage); see, “Sakkāya Diṭṭhi – Getting Rid of Deeper Wrong Views“.
- It is fine to listen to them and even learn from them about MUNDANE things like science. Most of them have never been exposed to true Buddha Dhamma, and all of them are “moral people”. I discussed a good example recently (June 27, 2019 at 9:48 am post) at the discussion forum, “Sakkāya Diṭṭhi and Tilakkhana“. As I explained there, Dr. James Tour is correct when he explains why there is more to life than just the physical body. Furthermore, he explains with clear evidence why life could not have evolved from “inert matter”.
- However, since he apparently has not been exposed to true Buddha Dhamma, he cannot think of a good explanation other than to say that life must have been created by God and that there is an everlasting “soul” (i.e., he has sāssata diṭṭhi). I do not blame him; as he firmly believes (and he is right), life is very complex and it is NOT possible to explain the origins of life by the theory of evolution.
- What he has not been exposed to is Buddha’s explanation that life has ALWAYS existed (no traceable beginning to life) and evolves according to causes and conditions (Paṭicca Samuppāda); see, “Buddhism and Evolution – Aggañña Sutta (DN 27)“.
7. Among the four conditions that must be fulfilled to attain the Sōtapanna stage of Nibbāna, “Sappurisasaṃsevo” or “Association with “sappurisa (sath + purisa or “Noble friend”, i.e., an Ariya)” is the first condition; see, “Four Conditions for Attaining Sōtapanna Magga/Phala“.
- Since Buddha’s teachings are unique, the true message has to come from a Buddha or someone “who can be traced back to the Buddha”, as explained in the above post. The teachings can be explained accurately only by an Ariya who has GRASPED those unique teachings that have never been known to the world: “pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu..” (see #8 of “Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta – Introduction“).
- But it is not necessary to “hang out” or “directly associate” with an Ariya. The key is to “to get advice from and to follow” such Noble Persons, as explained above. That can be done by listening to their desanas (discourses) and/or by reading their writings.
- One cannot attain the Sōtapanna stage while having sakkāya diṭṭhi (i.e., ucchēda diṭṭhi or sāssata diṭṭhi or some combination of the two): see, “Sakkāya Diṭṭhi – Getting Rid of Deeper Wrong Views“.
8. Now we can look into the term “sappurisa” in more detail to get a better picture of the whole situation. There are many suttā that describe sappurisa/asappurisa in different ways (all related to each other).
- For our discussion here, the description given in the “Aṭṭhaṅgika Sutta (AN 4.205)” is more relevant: “Katamo ca, bhikkhave, asappuriso? Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco micchādiṭṭhiko hoti, micchāsaṅkappo hoti, micchāvāco hoti, micchākammaṃto hoti, micchāājīvo hoti, micchāvāyāmo hoti, micchāsati hoti, micchāsamādhi hoti. Ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asappuriso“.
- Translated: “An asappurisa is one who follows micchā diṭṭhi, micchā saṅkappa, micchā vācā, micchā kammaṃta, micchā ājīva, micchā vāyāma, micchā sati, and micchā samādhi.
- In other words, when one has wrong views (micchā diṭṭhi), one thinks in wrong ways, speaks in wrong ways, acts in wrong ways, follows a wrong livelihood, makes efforts in accomplishing wrong (or useless) goals, gets to the wrong mindset, and thus ends up with a perturbed state (and thus is prone to act unwisely).
9. Of course, a sappurisa is one who is on the correct pat with sammā diṭṭhi, sammā saṅkappa hoti, sammā vācā, sammāka mmanta, sammā ājīva, sammā vāyāma, sammā sati, and sammā samādhi.
- Furthermore, the sutta explains that there is a worse asappurisa, who in addition encourages others to follow the wrong path.
- Similarly, there is a better sappurisa, who encourages others to follow the correct path.
10. Another definition of a asappurisa is given in the “Paṭipadā Sutta (SN 22.44)“, which is relevant to the present discussion: “Sakkāyasamudayagāminiñca vo, bhikkhave, paṭipadaṃ desessāmi, sakkāyanirodhagāminiñca paṭipadaṃ.
Taṃ suṇātha. Katamā ca, bhikkhave, sakkāyasamudayagāminī paṭipadā? Idha, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano ariyānaṃ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto, sappurisānaṃ adassāvī sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinīto, rūpaṃ attato samanupassati, rūpavantaṃ vā attānaṃ; attani vā rūpaṃ, rūpasmiṃ vā attānaṃ. Vedanaṃ attato … saññaṃ … saṅkhāre … viññāṇaṃ attato samanupassati, viññāṇavantaṃ vā attānaṃ; attani vā viññāṇaṃ, viññāṇasmiṃ vā attānaṃ“.
Translated: ““Bhikkhus, I will teach you the way leading to the origination of sakkāya (diṭṭhi) and the way leading to the cessation of sakkāya (diṭṭhi). The description in blue is exactly same as discussed in #2 of the post, “Sakkāya Diṭṭhi and Tilakkhana“.
- The next verse in the sutta states that a sappurisa is one who has removed sakkāya diṭṭhi.
11. Two more relevant terms are “sutavā ariyasāvako” (a Noble person who has comprehended Buddha Dhamma) and “assutavā puthujjano” (who has not heard/comprehended Buddha Dhamma).
- The “Ānandatthera Sutta (SN 55.13)” describes a “sutavā ariyasāvako” as one who has “buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato“, “dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato“, “sanghe aveccappasādena samannāgato“, “ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato“. That means one who has “unbreakable faith in the Buddha, Dhamma, Saṅgha, and unbreakable moral mindset that would not do an apāyagāmi deed”.
- Those are actually the four qualities of a Sōtapanna; see, “Sotapatti Anga – The Four Qualities of a Sōtapanna“. The key term “aveccappasādena” and “ariyakānta sīla” are discussed in that post.
- Again, there are many suttā describe these terms in different (but related) ways. For example, “Dutiyaariyasāvaka Sutta (SN 12.50)” describes a “sutavā ariyasāvaka” as one who has comprehended Paṭicca Samuppāda.
- Therefore, a “sutavā ariyasāvako” is a Noble Person or an Ariya.
- On the other hand, “assutavā puthujjano” is one who who has not heard/grasped those.
12. Therefore, even a person who may be considered highly moral by mundane standards (like famous philanthropists, scientists, etc) is likely to be an “asappurisa” or an “assutavā puthujjano“. That is IF they have micchā diṭṭhi (10 types of micchā diṭṭhi which include sakkāya diṭṭhi). As we have discussed, sakkāya diṭṭhi is ucchēda diṭṭhi or sāssata diṭṭhi or a combination of the two. Such persons would not be able to guide one on the Noble Eightfold Path.
- Again, that does not mean one cannot learn other useful (mundane) concepts from them.
- One really needs to avoid those who are engaged in immoral deeds: drug use, excessive alcohol use, sexual misconduct, etc.
- In order to make progress on the Noble Path, one should associate (follow and take advice from) a pandita (wise person) in the context of Buddha Dhamma, i.e., a sappurisa/sutavā ariyasāvaka. A pandita is not determined by age, educational degrees, or other metrics, but only based on whether one has removed sakkāya diṭṭhi.
July 1, 2019: Regarding #5 above, it is important to note that āsēvana is different from asēvana.
- Sēvana is association. Āsēvana (Ā + sēvana) is “came to associate with”; see, “Āsēvana and Aññamañña Paccayā“.
- Asēvana (A + sēvana) is “not to associate with”, the negation as discussed in #5 above.
It is very important to see the difference, which illustrates how Pāli words combine (sandhi) to produce other words with very different meanings. Thanks to Tobias Große for bringing this distinction to our attention at the discussion forum today.