Meditation Techniques

  • This topic has 31 replies, 9 voices, and was last updated 1 year ago by Lal.
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    • #34353

      Hey, My name is David, I am glad to join the forum. Can anybody drop a few links to the current meditation techniques they’re currently using? I am using the one below but I want to see what everybody else is using.

    • #34354

      Hello David,

      I am not sure how much of Buddha Dhamma (true Buddhism) that you have been exposed to.
      – It is based on cleansing one’s mind of greed, anger, and ignorance about the true nature of the world.

      I suggest scanning through the list here:
      Bhāvanā (Meditation)

      If you can provide your thoughts after reading some of the posts, we may be able to comment further.

    • #34358

      This person is probably a bot, this link may or is harmful – do not click it. You may delete this Lal. As site and forum getting more popular you will get more of those random bots spamming “” links to their marketing stuff of hoax sites

    • #34364

      Thanks, Christian. I just deleted the link.

      David, If you would like to make a comment on why that video is relevant to mediation, you can do so.

    • #34489

      today we have many techniques of meditation. but the older one is the best technique. also, you sit down. and breath slowly feels the positivity.
      Try this DELETED

    • #34491

      Breath meditation may provide temporary relaxation, but that is not what Buddha Dhamma is about.

      – That is a deeper aspect that cannot be understood if one does not believe in the rebirth process.

    • #34623

      I was thinking for few days about meditation how I will start meditation DELETED

    • #34631

      Hello Paul,

      Please don’t post any more of these videos. I will remove them if you do.
      Thank you!

    • #34635

      Lal, this is not a person, this is another bot, the DavidLeilak is also a bot, not a person, they look thru the sites (those bots) and spread malicious or bad links to highlight their site into the top search of google. Delete those people and links also set up a captcha for posting :)

      You can just google this site and you will see “paul” spamming everywhere :)

    • #34637

      Thanks, Christian.

      I removed the links and the user too.

    • #35791

      I did not want to ask this question in the Goenka vipassana thread, because Mr. Goenka discourages the use of mantras.
      Yesterday I was listening to a talk by Thanissaro Bhikku, and he mentions the chanting of Buddho.
      In a another talk he was mentioning of the technique of concentrating on the syllable Bhu in the inbreath and dho in the outbreath. In yesterdays talk he said the monks when involved in strenuous physical activities, such as construction duties, would find energy by concentrating on Buddho breath meditation during their chores and would be able to work long hours.
      What does Buddho mean? Is it a plural of Buddha, and is there a mention of such breathing technique in the Tripitika?
      I tried it this morning during my meditation (1hour duration) and it seemed to help. It is a positive thought as opposed to negative vaci shankara. My mind was switching between breath, body sensations and thoughts of the Buddha and buddha chants (namo tasso bhagavato, iti pisso bhagava, buddham saranam gacchami etc).
      Some time back, I had heard a lecture by Bhikku Bodhi, on techniques of meditations (metta bhavana, Buddhanusatti (thinking of the qualities of the Buddha and his form), Kayanusati (the disgusting contents and the nature of the body), and marananusati (the temporary nature of the body and its eventual death).

    • #35793

      “What does Buddho mean? Is it a plural of Buddha, and is there a mention of such breathing technique in the Tripitika?”

      – Buddho is actually singular. It refers to the Buddha.

      – Not everything is in the Tipitaka. Various meditation techniques can be used as long as they are consistent with the Tipitaka.

      “I tried it this morning during my meditation (1hour duration) and it seemed to help.”

      – Yes. It is fine to use that to calm the mind.
      – Buddha comes from “bhava” + uddha” OR “stopping suffering-filled rebirth”.
      – Also see:
      “A Buddhist or a Bhauddhaya?

      Buddhist Chanting – Introduction

    • #35797

      Hi Raj,

      In addition to what Lal have shared with you.

      “What does Buddho mean”

      Sometimes we can try to investigate into the answers ourselves first. In my opinion, one of the most important qualities that one should develop while walking on the path is to be able to investigate and discern for oneself what is most beneficial or closes to the truth based on what we know / understand. One day we might not always have someone to answer our questions; as well we can’t and don’t want to always depend on others for our answers. We can listen to what other’s share or teach and seek help when we’re stuck or want to get another opinion / view. But ultimately, it’s through our own effort and investigation that leads to us to Nibbana.

      I’m not sure if you have looked more into what Buddho can possibly mean besides the dhamma talks that you listened to.

      This might be of interest

      Someone shared their experience with Buddho meditation.

      “I’ve been doing Buddho meditation for several months now. I wasn’t sure what I was doing was correct, just mentally saying bud on the inhale, dho on the exhale. I must have read it somewhere and decided to try it. I’ve never said it out loud as I didn’t want to activate my ear “door”.
      So one night during vipassana meditation class, Ajahn asked me how my meditation was going. I replied that on that particular night, I was frustrated because I couldn’t stay focused on my breathing, I could see the thoughts arise but would jump to them.

      Luckily I was able to return to my breathing but became frustrated that I couldn’t remain on the breath like I have before. He said several things. First, I was becoming too attached to the expectation that I would always be in the best states of mind. Sometimes you have a bad night. After 30 years he said sometimes it can be struggle but he doesn’t get frustrated because he’s doesn’t have expectations. More time spent doing Vipassana will cure that–impermanence will be understood easier. Then he told us a story of a time during a nine long year retreat in a cave when he was younger. He went to visit a friend in the next cave over and found him pounding his leg furiously saying, Buddho….Buddho…Buddho. He said, that was Samatha meditation. Concentration.

      I’ve spent more time doing Vipassana but I’m really trying to practice Buddho. I think its good because its easy to remember and you can approach it in a couple of ways. You can mentally repeat Bud (BOOD) on the inhale, dho (DO) on the exhale. Don’t worry about the breath. If its slow, mentally say Bud slow. If the breathing is quick, then repeat the syllables quicker. You can also vary the speed and say buddho buddho when you sense a thought approach. The thought will be like a bubble that never surfaces. Through the will of the mind, you push it down and Buddho is the tool. Don’t jump to the thought! Best of luck.”

      My only comment is does this meditation purify the mind . . . One can decide for themselves.

      “Kayanusati (the disgusting contents and the nature of the body)”

      If I may offer what I understand about kayanusati. To me it’s not about the disgusting the body, but rather the unfruitful / in vain nature of the body. To me, thinking / taking things as disgusting is patigha. I believe the purpose of why monk’s go to the cemetery’s and practice there is to help one to reflect on that one day we’ll end up in the same place, all our worldly efforts to seek sensual pleasure will end up in vain at the break up of the body. This is to show us the unfruitful nature in our worldly endeavors.

      Another teaching on kayanusati that I learned is to see and understand the suffering that’s associate with the 5 senses. For example the eyes, in order to see beautiful visions or function normal in this world, we need eyes. But the majority of people never think about how much suffering the eyes brings, we only think how we can use / own the eyes for enjoyment / pleasure. Starting in the womb, if the fetus doesn’t get enough nutrients or the mother contracts a disease, it can cause the new born baby to be blind. Living in this world, sights are important for us living beings. One mostly needs the eye to function normal in this world, but if one doesn’t have eyes to see in this world, that’s a vexation / suffering on the person.

      Even if one has the eyes to see, we need to maintain and continue to provide nourishment to maintain our eyes / vision. As well protect them from getting injuried, etc . . . If the eyes get’s diseased / injuried, then that brings suffering to our minds. The eyes can’t even enjoy, but they can bring dukkha dukkha upon us. Now let’s say even if one’s eyes works perfectly well till one’s death. After one’s death, the body breaks up, the eyes goes back into the dhatu’s. All the beautiful visions one has seen in one’s life, all for nothing at the end, ends up as a pile of rubbish. Not only that, the eyes pretty much forces us to continuously seek pleasure / enjoyment since they can’t be fulfilled, it’s always been like this and will continue to be like this until we remove avija, raga, anusaya, etc . . . In seeking sensual pleasures for the eyes or the other sense organs, we end up committing dasa akusala’s which later on can send us to the apaya’s.

      With Metta,

    • #35805

      Hi TripleGemStudent,

      Thank you for sharing your thoughts.

      I heard about Buddho breath several years back from a fellow vipassana student who mentioned that monks use this technique and I did not bother to try it, because Goenkaji discourages the use of words and mantras.
      I heard the bhante’s talk several months back, and was occasionally doing it, then I heard another talk on the same subject some nights back, and to my surprise my mind was contemplating on the talk and I was doing Buddho breath even without making an effort when I woke up the next day. I sat for my meditation and continued doing it. During the day I had to make a conscious effort to stay on Buddho breath.
      After reading your comment this morning and contemplating on it, I came to a wonderful realization!
      This Buddho breath meditation is a great tool!
      My mind is like a monkey with supersonic wings jumping from one thought to another, and I realized it has an on/off button (which is the Buddho breath meditation). I have the power to lock this monkey in a cage !
      In the vipassana retreats,(when we were not meditating and were walking or doing some activities) we were trained to watch the breath and some sensations in the body. It does help stopping the mind from wandering, but I find the Buddho breath to be a far superior technique!
      At this moment it is working great, and I hope it continues to do so. I have learnt not to take anything for granted in life!
      The other subject matters you have discussed is also thought provoking and helpful.
      Thanks again.

      With Metta.

    • #35807

      Hi Raj,

      – If you want, can you please explain how by meditating on “Buddho” can help you or anyone purify their mind?

      “we were trained to watch the breath and some sensations in the body. It does help stopping the mind from wandering”

      – Is a wandering mind really a problem? This is just based on my own understanding and experience. To me a wandering mind is not really a problem. It becomes a problem when it wonders into raga, dosa, moha thoughts. But what about if the mind is wandering into dhamma thoughts and concepts or wholesome thoughts? Is a wandering mind a problem in this case?

      “My mind is like a monkey with supersonic wings jumping from one thought to another, and I realized it has an on/off button (which is the Buddho breath meditation). I have the power to lock this monkey in a cage”

      What do you think would make a better monkey in the long term? A constantly locked up monkey or a well “trained” monkey that is free to roam, explore and investigate it’s surroundings? When you call out to this well “trained” monkey, it comes to your side and is ready to follow your command. Is a monkey that’s not in a cage a problem?

    • #35809

      The following post explains a few types of anusati:

      Anussati and Anupassanā – Being Mindful and Removing Defilements

      When it comes to contemplating the “disgusting nature of the body”, most places I’ve read use the term asubhanusati to describe that, not kayanusati.

      This is of course a misinterpretation of asubhanusati; I’m just saying that many sources explain it that way.


    • #35814

      I was just sharing what works for me. Every individual is different.
      In my personal experience, being aware of the breath slows down the jumping nature of the mind.
      When I get up in the morning and engage in Buddho breath, the mind is focused and it is easier to meditate. If not, as soon as I get up the mind will start thinking of things to do, and then it will start jumping all over the place, and I will be thinking of something I did 50 years ago, which has nothing to do with the present moment.
      I am able to concentrate on a subject matter when there is breath awareness even on day to day activities.
      Regarding Buddho, it is a spiritual anchor. Part of the mind is aware of the Buddha and the mind will tend to act with kusala mula instead of the akusala (where lust, anger, greed, envy, hatred and other bad qualities will have an influence over the mind).
      Each individual has to see what works best, and it also depends on what one wants to achieve in life.
      I am a retired old man, I can afford to do Buddho meditation when I get up, on the other hand
      a younger person with lot of goals to achieve, will start planning the day even before getting off the bed. But the same person can do Buddho breath on the weekend if he/she wants to be a little relaxed.

    • #35816

      This is just an additional perspective to the above comment.
      A little while ago, somebody made a phone call and talked to my wife, and I was an indirect subject to the conversation. After the call was over, my wife talked to me about it, the conversation was over, but there was an ongoing conversation going on in my head. All the parties were in the minds picture, but no only that, the mind jumps to the past and drags in that scene. It is an ongoing chatter.
      Then I went for my daily walk, and as I was walking I started doing Buddho breath. When I was doing the Buddho breath, I experienced my mind slowing down and not only that I was sending metta to all the people involved, and my mind was not dragging other older stories.
      I was experiencing some joy.
      I have seen with experience that it is easier to contemplate on Dhamma topics in this state of mind.
      Now I would prefer to be in that state instead of my mind jumping all over like a monkey to different subjects. So it is all an individual taste and choice.
      I think I was actively putting the Buddha’s teachings into practice.
      I heard a talk by Bhikku Yuttadhammo about five types of people the Buddha describes. I have heard it several times over the past few years, it is about putting the teachings into practice.
      I hope others will hear and benefit from it.

      One Who Lives By The Dhamma [Edited by SengKiat 15Oct2021]

      For some reason, the whole link did not get copied, but if one clicks on these red letters, it brings up the talk.


    • #35820

      I heard the above talk again because it had been a while, and I heard the bhante in the end of the talk, referring to anicca as impermanence.
      Those of us who have the good fortune to have access to know anicca has nothing to do with impermanence.

      But there is a lot one can learn from the talk.One Who Lives By The Dhamma

    • #35827

      Thank you Lang for the input and clarification. I hope you and everyone’s dhamma practice is going well.


      “it is about putting the teachings into practice.”

      I totally agree with putting the teachings or what one is learning into practice. Thank you for sharing your experience. I’m glad to see that you found the practice that works best for you, may it help you to attain the supreme bliss of Nibbana. I sincerely wish you and all the dhamma practitioners the best with their practices.

      with Metta,

    • #35838

      Hi TripleGemStudent (TGS) and Lang,

      Both of you have helped me quite a bit in the past few months with your comments. Sometimes your comments lead me to further investigation and solidify my own convictions.
      I was listening to a talk this morning, and there was a point made about trying to figure things out by ourselves (the Buddha is not going to be giving the answer, we have to figure it out) as TGS had commented earlier.
      It is a short but a very good talk for those of us who want to use meditation as a tool. I just wanted to share with you and see what you think.110424 Remembering Ajaan Lee \\ Thannissaro Bhikku \\ Dhamma Talk

      Thank you,

    • #35842

      Hi Raj,

      “who want to use meditation as a tool.”

      I’m not 100% certain what you mean by these words . . . But by my own definition or understanding of “meditation”. I would be very confident to say that the majority of us on puredhamma is already using meditation as a tool.

      I’ll be completely honest with you, even though I didn’t listen to any of the talks you posted beside the one you just asked my opinion on. To me, most of the teachers and talks you have posted does not resonate with me “anymore”. I feel that I “spend more time and energy” filtering out information, trying to understand what’s being taught and filling in the blanks myself then doing any actual learning.

      I did listen to the dhamma talk that you asked my opinion on and I do have a reply for you in mind, but I’m not sure if I will end up writing it out or it will at least take some time for me to type it out. Most likely this will be the only time that I will listen to these talks that your posting and comment on it, because I feel there are some important things that you should be aware of.

      Something that I can recommend to you is that if you feel that you’re not receiving the answers or not enough discussions on the topics that’s important or of interest to you here at puredhamma. You can look into joining

      Suttacentral forums

      dharmawheel forums

      I’m sure there’s a lot of experts and people on those forums that share similar interest as you. As well the majority of the people in these forums most likely have learned and practiced from similar teachers of the talks that your posting here. Just to give you a heads up at suttacentral though, I’m not sure if this has changed or hopefully it has changed, but before one of their forum guideline is that it’s “wrong speech” to them if someone mentions Anicca “does not” mean impermanence. I hope this helps.

      In the mean time, if you feel like it, why don’t you share with us or me what you have learned from the talk that you asked mine and Lang opinion on. What’s your own opinion of it? What did you learn from it? What made sense or didn’t make sense to you? Was there any teachings in the talk you felt needed further clarification on? Etc . . .

    • #35843

      Hi TripleGemStudent,

      Thank you for taking the time and effort to the send the above comment, it was very kind on your part to do so.
      I am not sure why I enjoy listening to all kinds of dhamma related talks, but if I don’t do that, I may end up spending my time on non dhamma topics (politics, family tv shows ect). I don’t listen to popular entertainment music, and may be it has been over 6 months since I have seen a movie, it has been years, since I have seen a new movies. I used to watch old movies which I like and skip or walk away from certain scenes. I tend to analyze the movie.
      Unfortunately I cant meditate for many hours, It is too late for me to ordain as a buddhist monk
      (on the other hand I am a perfect candidate for a vedic monk, which I am not interested in), I wanted to stay long term and serve as a vipassana volunteer, that is out of question for the time being.
      But I have realized that my comprehension capacity is not up to par, may be and hopefully it will improve with meditation down the road.
      I have to be very careful because I have realized that many times I don’t catch the correct context or key points of the talk. I listened to a talk last week and misquoted that the speaker was saying the Gods and demons sometimes enter our body, but he was referring to hungry ghosts and other subtle entities. But I do enjoy listening to the same talks repeatedly, and in the end get most of its contents.
      So my point is, I don’t want to give my comments, I feel a satisfaction listening to these talks,
      they make a lot of sense to me, but I just wanted to get your perspective.
      I am happy and satisfied with my current activities, especially after I have cut down drastically on my listening to politics (I hope I never go back to that!), I enjoy listening to suttas and chants, and I am getting used to Buddobreath and hope to increase and be aware of it all the time.
      The good news is I am happy and I hope it is true happiness and not a fools happiness, and hopefully attain stream entry.
      Thank you again,

    • #38109
      Tobi M

      Dear Lal,

      I am really glad I found your website. I am quite new to meditation and want to learn more. Your articles are very rich, full of details, and I also try to learn some Pali words to make the understanding easier.

      The reason why I am trying to get deeper into meditation is that I got a place for a 10d “Vipassana Retreat” in July which I have never done before. I am aware of the differences between Goenka Vipassana and the Dhamma you describe here: I have already read some of the corresponding forum entries. But I still believe that this retreat can help me become more focused and concentrated to continue on that path. I am quite sure though that I do not want to end up with breathing mediations, because I want to look deeper….

      To make it practical I have started to experiment with the meditation you described here:

      8. The Basic Formal Anāpānasati Meditation

      Do I find some more introductions on the blog?

      With gratitude for your work

      Tobi (from Berlin, Germany)

    • #38112

      Hello Tobi,

      I am glad that you found that post to be helpful. It is an old post, and I just revised it a bit.

      You may find the posts at “9. Key to Ānapānasati – How to Change Habits and Character (Gati)” to have a bit more information.
      – Related to those posts are posts on “gati” (habits/character): See, “The Law of Attraction, Habits, Character (Gati), and Cravings (Āsava)” and posts referred to therein.
      – Please don’t hesitate to ask questions if some things are not clear.

      I hope you will make significant progress at the retreat.

      • #38115
        Tobi M

        Hello Lal,

        thank you for further advice. Bit by bit, I will be reading all those articles (and many more).

        I would like to ask two questions right now:

        1. You speak quite often about the urgency to “remove” thoughts, especially when they are immoral. I understand by immoral that they are full of strong negative emotions. But how do we exactly remove or stop a thought?
        In other forms of meditations I have encountered so far, they speak about “letting pass them by” (just like clouds at the sky). Is it an important distinction not to merely be the passive observer of thoughts, but to actively remove them? Or are both fine and interchangeable?

        2. What about fearful thoughts / worries / sorrows: Since they do not harm anyone (unless myself), are they also considered to be immoral? How to proceed with them?

        Many thanks for your answer,

    • #38117

      Hello Tobi,

      1. “Removal” is done using a two-prong method.
      – When sensual/immoral thoughts come to the mind, one needs to turn the mind away from them. The easiest way is to start thinking about opposite thoughts. They can be thinking about the bad consequences of continuing on sensual/immoral thoughts. The commonly used “anariya” technique is to start thinking about a “neutral object” like breath or a kasina object.
      – The above method just keeps the “fire” subsided. That is not enough. The tendency for such thoughts to arise will be there until “kama raga anusaya”, “ditthi anusaya” and “avijja anusaya” are there. Those are removed from the mind by comprehending the core principles of Buddha Dhamma: Four Noble Truths/Paticca Samuppada/Tilakkhana.
      – Thus, learning Buddha Dhamma and living according to those principles is the key.

      2. ” fearful thoughts / worries / sorrows” all will also go away when those anusaya are removed. But it is a step-by-step process. By the way, you can use the same techniques in #1 above to take the mind off of such thoughts.
      – Even for an Arahant, physical suffering (associated with the physical body) like injuries, and sicknesses, will be there until the death of the physical body.

      You can use the “Search” box on the top right to find relevant posts. I can suggest some if you like. Just let me know which topics.
      – You can also scan through the following two sections;
      Moral Living and Fundamentals
      Living Dhamma

    • #38142
      Tobi M

      Hello Lal,

      thank you for your answer! I have tapped a bit deeper into meditation, up to two hours daily.
      I proceed lightly, w/o any extreme concentrated form. My only goal is to sit still for the whole time and not to drift unconsciously into thoughts.

      I realize to my own surprise that my deeper emotions are full of DOSA. Sometimes in the milder version of dislike/aversion, sometimes even deep hatred or scorn. It has a lot to do with my past, images of parents and other family members appear, how they treated me etc…

      As a result of these thoughts, I find it almost impossible to live a “good” life. I am quite sure that I do not commit any major infractions but on the other hand, I do not feel the incentive to do good deeds either! What can I do?
      I find it helpful to use METTA during meditation. Also to focus on the difference between past and reality. This works for the time on the mat. But I still see that these emotions keep me away from really participating in life.


    • #38144
      Tobias G

      Hello Tobi (Tobias?),

      I see what you mean. Dosa can be overcome with metta. One can be trapped in dosa mindset. When you understand more and deeper dhamma concepts you gain knowledge and dosa will not appear that much. Even the effects of metta bhavana will be enhanced. So both work in the same right direction.

      As add-on relief try to forgive those bad persons and ask for forgiveness from your side. That will also calm your mind. At the beginning it may not be easy but the more you try the better it will get.

      By the way, the aim of real Buddhist meditation is to contemplate Dhamma concepts and to compare one’s own experience for validity. This creates real understanding and trust in the teaching. With understanding the defilements will vanish.

      Tobias / Heiligenstadt

    • #38145

      Hello Tobi,

      Yes. I can see how “scars from the past” can affect one’s mindset. I can suggest a couple of actions.

      1. You need to take your mind off those memories as quickly as possible. That must be done whether you are in a formal meditation session or while engaging in other activities.

      2. It is unlikely that you recall such memories while you are seriously focusing attention on any kind of task, whether it is work-related or engaging in a sports activity.
      – So, try to engage in such activities as much as possible. If you are in formal meditation, quickly turn your attention to metta Bhavana or a dhamma concept.
      – Stray thoughts can be dangerous as I explain next.

      3. Most people take every effort to avoid immoral actions by speech or actions. There are 4 akusala kamma done with speech and 3 done with actions, as you probably read in the post on the BIG EIGHT: “2. The Basics in Meditation
      – It seems to me that I need to make it about BIG NINE. I need to emphasize the problem of “vaci sankhara”.

      4. Actions involve “kaya sankhara” and speech involves “vaci sankhara.” Both types of those become abhisankhara if they involve lobha, dosa, moha. Those are immoral speech and actions.
      – However, CONSCIOUS thoughts (even if speech or actions not involved) also generate vaci abhisankhara. They can be as harmful as abhisankhara done with speech. In other words, speaking out or just “talking oneself” with lobha, dosa, moha thoughts both are harmful to a similar extent.

      5. I have tried to explain that in the post, “Correct Meaning of Vacī Sankhāra
      – You may also want to read the post on sankhara: “Saṅkhāra – What It Really Means

      6. Therefore, it is VERY important to stay from silently engaging in generating angry/lustful thoughts. Many people tend to do that because they think “I am not hurting anyone.” But that is not true. You are hurting yourself!
      – You can see that clearly in the face of someone who is angry but is not acting out or even not saying a word. But you can see the anger in the face.
      – The same is true for someone “enjoying lustful thoughts”. They spend hours “coming up with various actions” that they would like to engage in. That is as bad as engaging in such activities! Furthermore, when such thoughts become strong, one may be forced to take action.

      7. What I discussed above is a key component of Anapanasati/Satipatthana Bhavana. Of course, most people don’t realize that. They spend hours and hours just focusing on their breath or some such nonsense.

    • #38168
      Tobi M

      I am learning a lot here. In the West, people use to say that the “thoughts are free”, you can judge a man only for his bad deeds and verbal violence. So I am trying to get a new point of view on that.

      My mind is definitely not well trained. So one day it is Dosa arising in the meditation, next time it could be Lobha. I am at least at the stage already where I would not commit immoral deeds for getting my desires fulfilled or to punish someone. Because I see already how futile all these mind activities are. I have some sort of insight into ANICCA. I like the sentence: The perception of a potential enjoyment lays the foundation for future suffering. So true.

      Thank you for your support, I will keep on practicing.


    • #38170

      Yes. In the Western world, the emphasis is on the body, not the mind.
      – In Buddha Dhamma is exactly the opposite: “Manōpubbangamā Dhammā..

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