This is an early post; revised May 10, 2018
1. Kusala-mula version of paticca samuppada (PS) is not described in even the current Theravada texts, even though it is in the Tipitaka. This is because since the time Buddhghosa wrote Visuddhimagga, all Theravada texts followed that and his other books instead of Tipitaka.
- That means the PS process for attaining Nibbana has NOT been described for over 1500 years. No wonder the Nibbana has been hidden for all these years.
- Kusala-mula (pronounced kusala– müla) PS describes the PS process for acting with alobha, adosa, and amoha (which is the same as saying staying away from dasa akusala or acting without lobha, dosa, and moha.
2. One is born in this world due to the six root causes.
- One is born in the apayas or dugati (and also subjected to suffering even when born in good realms) due to bad gati arising mainly due to lōbha, dōsa, mōha. The akusala-mula PS operates when actions, speech, and thoughts take place with these three root causes; see, “Akusala-Mūla Paticca Samuppāda“.
- One is born in the “good realms” or sugati (and also experience mundane sense pleasures) due to “good gati” developed by acting with alobha, adosa, amoha. Kusala-mūla PS cycles operate when actions, speech, and thoughts take place with these three root causes that bring “good outcomes”.
3. The steps in this kusala-mula cycle are:
“kusala-mula paccaya sankhara; sankhara paccaya vinnana; vinnana paccaya namarupa, namarupa paccaya salayatana, salayatana paccaya phasso, phassa paccaya vedana, vedana paccaya cittapasado, cittapasada paccaya adhimokkho, adhimokkho paccaya bhavo, bhava paccaya jati, jati paccaya jara, maranan, eva me tassa dhammanan samudhayo hoti“
Here I have marked in blue the terms that are different from the terms in the akusala-mula PS. Let us briefly translate the terms. Here I am describing both pavutti and uppatti PS together.
4. With kusala-mula as condition, one accumulates punnabhi sankhara.
- Here kusala-mula are deeds done with alobha, adosa, amoha, AND one does not wish for anything because one’s mind is automatically rejecting anything within the 31 realms.
5. With punnabhi sankhara as condition, a punnabhi vinnana arises. This punnabhi vinnana is accumulated as kamma bhava and could lead to corresponding “good” namarupa in pavutti paticca samuppada or a new “good birth” in uppatti paticca samuppada.
- Because the sankhara was generated with a kusala-mula deed, only a kusala-mula vinnana arises: “pati +ichcha sama uppada“. The characteristic of this kusala-mula vinnana is the desire (chanda, not kamachanda) for Nibbana.
6. With punnabhi vinnana as condition, namarupa arise.
- The namarupa are generated accordingly: one thinks accordingly and one’s mind and body are attuned for meritorious deeds. At death, the patisandhi vinnana is again according to the kusala-mula vinnana and thus a birth in the lower four realms is avoided for a Sotapanna, and a birth in the lower 11 realms (kamaloka) is avoided for an Anagami, for example.
7. With namarupa as condition, salayatana arise.
- The salayatana (six sense doors) arise accordingly too: they are attuned for only meritorious deeds. At a new birth, the sense faculties arise accordingly.
8. With salayatana as condition, phasso arise.
- Note that this is just “phassa” and NOT “san phassa” or “samphassa” as in “Akusala-Mula Paticca Samuppada“.
- The contacts with the outside world are attuned for seeking Nibbana: learning dhamma and practicing dhamma.
9. With phassa as condition, vedana arise.
- Through such interactions, one enjoys the contact with dhamma, true knowledge and understanding.
10. With vedana as condition, cittapasadi arises.
- Tranquility of consciousness is the standard translation for cittapasadi; it is a type of joyous feeling, lightness of heart.
11. With cittapasadi as condition, adhimokkho arises.
- Adhimokko is normally translated as “decision” or “resolve” where saddha becomes peaked; here it means the mind is decisively attracted towards Nibbana. The mind cools down.
12. With adhimokkho as condition, bhava arises.
- The resulting existence or “bhava” matching that state of mind: “pati+ichcha sama uppada“; one “lives” that experience. If it is rebirth at patisandhi, an appropriate “bhava” is selected according to the kamma nimitta. Here any “apayagami” kamma seeds that may have been acquired in the distant past do not get a chance to come to forefront, and thus a rebirth in the lower four realms is prevented.
13. With bhava as condition, jati arise.
- The appropriate jati (Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anagami) will result in an appropriate realm.
14. With jati as condition, jara, maranan, eva me tassa dhammanan samudhayo hoti“.
- Any Ariya is also subject to decay and death as long as he/she is in one of the 31 realms. But here the connection to dukkha is not shown, because one is destined to attain Nibbana.
Next, “Manomaya Kaya (Gandhabba) and the Physical Body“, ………