Kusala-Mula Paṭicca Samuppāda

This is an early post; revised May 10, 2018

1. Kusala-mula version of Paṭicca Samuppāda (PS) is not described in even the current Theravada texts, even though it is in the Tipiṭaka. This is because since the time Buddhghosa wrote Visuddhimagga, all Theravada texts followed that and his other books instead of Tipiṭaka

  • That means the PS process for attaining Nibbāna has NOT been described for over 1500 years. No wonder the Nibbāna has been hidden for all these years.
  • Kusala-mula (pronounced kusalamüla) PS describes the PS process for acting with alobha, adosa, and amoha (which is the same as saying staying away from dasa akusala or acting without lobha, dosa, and moha.

2. One is born in this world due to the six root causes.

  • One is born in the apāyā or dugati (and also subjected to suffering even when born in good realms) due to bad gati arising mainly due to lōbha, dōsa, mōha. The akusala-mula PS operates when actions, speech, and thoughts take place with these three root causes; see, “Akusala-Mūla Paṭicca Samuppāda“.
  • One is born in the “good realms” or sugati (and also experience mundane sense pleasures) due to “good gati” developed by acting with alobha, adosa, amohaKusala-mūla PS cycles operate when actions, speech, and thoughts take place with these three root causes that bring “good outcomes”.

3. The steps in this kusala-mula cycle are:

kusala-mula paccayā saṅkhāra; saṅkhāra paccayā viññāṇa; viññāṇa paccayā nāmarupa, nāmarupa paccayā salāyatana, salāyatana paccayā phasso, phassa paccayā vedana, vedana paccayā cittapasado, cittapasada paccayā adhimokkho, adhimokkho paccayā bhavo, bhava paccayā jāti, jāti paccayā jarā, maranan, eva me tassa dhammanan samudhayo hoti

Here I have marked in blue the terms that are different from the terms in the akusala-mula PS.  Let us briefly translate the terms. Here I am describing both pavutti and uppatti PS together.

4. With kusala-mula as condition, one accumulates puññābhi saṅkhāra.

  • Here kusala-mula are deeds done with alobha, adosa, amoha, AND one does not wish for anything because one’s mind is automatically rejecting anything within the 31 realms.

5. With puññābhi saṅkhāra as condition, a puññābhi viññāṇa arises. This puññābhi viññāṇa is accumulated as kamma bhava and could lead to corresponding “good” nāmarupa in pavutti Paṭicca Samuppāda or a new “good birth” in uppatti Paṭicca Samuppāda.

  • Because the saṅkhāra was generated with a kusala-mula deed, only a kusala-mula viññāṇa arises: “pati +ichcha sama uppada“. The characteristic of this kusala-mula viññāṇa is the desire (chanda, not kāmachanda) for Nibbāna.

6. With puññābhi viññāṇa as condition, nāmarupa arise.

  • The nāmarupa are generated accordingly: one thinks accordingly and one’s mind and body are attuned for meritorious deeds. At death, the patisandhi viññāṇa is again according to the kusala-mula viññāṇa and thus a birth in the lower four realms is avoided for a Sotāpanna, and a birth in the lower 11 realms (kāmaloka) is avoided for an Anāgāmi, for example.

7. With nāmarupa as condition, salāyatana arise.

  • The salāyatana (six sense doors) arise accordingly too: they are attuned for only meritorious deeds. At a new birth, the sense faculties arise accordingly.

8. With salāyatana as condition, phasso arise.

  • Note that this is just “phassa” and NOT “san phassa” or “samphassa” as in “Akusala-Mula Paṭicca Samuppāda“.
  • The contacts with the outside world are attuned for seeking Nibbāna: learning dhamma and practicing dhamma.

9. With phassa as condition, vedana arise.

  • Through such interactions, one enjoys the contact with dhamma, true knowledge and understanding.

10. With vedana as condition, cittapasadi arises.

  • Tranquility of consciousness is the standard translation for cittapasadi; it is a type of joyous feeling, lightness of heart.

11. With cittapasadi as condition, adhimokkho arises.

  • Adhimokko is normally translated as “decision” or “resolve” where saddha becomes peaked; here it means the mind is decisively attracted towards Nibbāna. The mind cools down.

12. With adhimokkho as condition, bhava arises.

  • The resulting existence or “bhava” matching that state of mind: “pati+ichcha sama uppada“; one “lives” that experience. If it is rebirth at patisandhi, an appropriate “bhava” is selected according to the kamma nimitta. Here any “apāyagāmikamma seeds that may have been acquired in the distant past do not get a chance to come to forefront, and thus a rebirth in the lower four realms is prevented.

13. With bhava as condition, jāti arise.

  • The appropriate jāti (Sotāpanna, Sakadāgāmi, Anāgāmi) will result in an appropriate realm.

14. With jāti as condition,  jarā, maranan, eva me tassa dhammanan samudhayo hoti“.

  • Any Ariya is also subject to decay and death as long as he/she is in one of the 31 realms. But here the connection to dukkha is not shown, because one is destined to attain Nibbāna.

Next, “Manomaya Kaya (Gandhabba) and the Physical Body“, ………

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