What is “San”? Meaning of Sansāra (or Samsāra)

Revised May 17, 2018; revised December 18, 2018

1. A key Pāli word, the meaning of which has been hidden for thousands of years, is “san” (pronounced like son). “San’ is basically the term for “good and bad things we acquire” through our moral/immoral deeds.

  • By understanding this root word, one can clearly see the meanings of many important Pāli words, without looking for roots in Sanskrit.

2. There is a reason for calling what we “acquire or add” as “san“. In Pāli and Sinhala, the word for numbers is “sankhyā“, and sankhyā = “san” + “khyā“, meaning add and subtract; i.e., sankhyā is what is used for addition and subtraction.  

  • From this, “san” gives the idea of “acquiring or adding”.
  • In the same way, “khyā” implies “removal or subtraction”.

3. Therefore, “san” is used to indicate things we do to lengthen our sansāric (or samsāric)journey; see below for examples.

  • These “san” are nothing else but dasa akusala (that lead to rebirth in the apayas) and also punna kamma (that lead to rebirths in the “good realms”); see, “Kusala and Akusala Kamma, Punna and Pāpa Kamma“.
  • One may wonder why moral deeds or punna kamma are also included in “san”. That is because they also lead to rebirths (“add” to sansāric journey).
  • However, one MUST do punna kamma in order to avoid rebirth in the apayas.

4. In the same way, “khyā” or “Khaya” is used to indicate shortening of the sansāric journey.

  • Nibbāna is attained via removal of defilements (rāga, dōsa, mōha), and thus Nibbāna is “rāgakkhaya“, “dōsakkhaya“, and “mōhakkhaya“.
  • Those three words have roots in “khaya” or “subtraction or removal”. For example, rāgakkhaya comes from “rāga” + “khaya“, combined to be pronounced as rāgakkhaya.
  • Thus it is quite clear that rāgakkhaya means “removing rāga”. Same for “dōsakkhaya“, and “mōhakkhaya“.  Nibbāna is reached via getting rid of rāga, dōsa, and mōha.

5. Just by grasping these key ideas, it is possible to understand the roots of many common words, such as sankhāra, sansāra, saññā, sammā, etc. Let us analyze some of these words.

  • We “add to” our rebirth process when we do “san“. The Pali word for “doing” is “khāra” (Sinhala word is “kāra” or කාර). That is the origin of the word “sankhāra” (“san” + “khāra“); the Sinhala word is sankāra or සංකාර).

6. From Paticca Samuppāda, all sufferings start with, “avijjā paccayā sankhāra“. Thus, when one gets rid of avijjā completely (at the Arahant stage), all sankhāra are stopped and one attains Nibbāna.

  • From the Manasikāra Sutta (AN 11.8): “‘etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ, yadidaṃ sabba­saṅ­khā­ra­sama­tho sabbū­padhipa­ṭi­nissaggo taṇhākkhayo virāgo nirodho nibbānan’ti.
  • Translated: ““It is peaceful, it is serene, the expelling of all sankhāra, breaking of bonds, removing greed and hate; Nibbāna”. So, it is quite clear that by stopping all sankhāra one attains Nibbāna.

7. However, a distinction needs to be made between sankhāra and abhisankhāra. The prefix “abhi” means “stronger” or “coarse”.

  • Sankhāra involves EVERYTHING that we do to live in “this world” of 31 realms; these include breathing, walking, eating, pretty much everything. Even an Arahant has to be engaged in sankhāra until Parinibbāna or death.
  • Sankhāra become abhisankhāra by engaging in the “wheeling process”; see, “Nibbāna – Is it Difficult to Understand?“. The sansāric process or the rebirth process is fueled by abhisankhāra.

8. The bad things we acquire – with lōbha (greed), dōsa (hate), mōha (delusion) – contribute to rebirth in lower four realm; these are apunnābhisankhāra (or apunna abhisankhāra). Here “apunna” means “immoral”.

  • The good things we acquire via alōbha, adōsa, amōha help gain rebirth in humān realm and above; these are punnābhisankhāra (or punna abhisankhāra).  Here “punna” means “moral”.
  • Thus, both kinds contribute to lengthening the rebirth process, but we DO need to do punnābhisankhāra for two reasons: (i) it prevents us from doing bad things, (ii) done with right intention, it will help purify our minds, i.e., punna kamma can become kusala kamma; see #18 below.

9. Another important term is “sammā“, which comes from “san” + ““, which means “to become free of san“. Here ““, means “becomes free of”. For example:

  •  hoti jati, jati“, means “may I be free of repeated birth”.
  •  mé bāla samāgamō” means “may I be free of association with those who are ignorant of Dhammā”.

10. The key word sanditthikō comes from san + ditthi (meaning vision), i.e., ability to see “san” or defrilements.

  • One becomes sanditthikō (one who is able to see “san” clearly) at the Sōtapanna Anugāmi stage.
  • Most texts define sanditthikō with inconsistent words like, self-evident, immediately apparent, visible here and now, etc.

11. Another very important word is saññā which comes from san +ñā (meaning knowing) = knowing or understanding “san”. This actually happens when one attains Nibbāna. Until then the saññā is clouded or distorted.

  • When we see people, for example, we identify them according to our familiarity with them or based on our perceptions of them. We do not “see” the true nature of anything until Nibbāna is attained. Thus it is said that until we attain Nibbāna, we have distorted (vipareetha) saññā.
  • Don’t worry about some of these deeper meanings, if you are not familiar with them. At least one is able to see a connection to the root word “san“.

12. Sanvara (or samvara) = san + vara, where  vara means “remove”. Therefore, sanvara means removing “san” via moral behavior, also called “sila“.

  • Sanvarattena seelan” means moral behavior that comes automatically upon one becoming a Sanditthikō (a Sōtapanna Anugāmi or a Sōtapanna.
  • Sanvara sila will be automatically enforced 24 hours a day, not just on specific days, because it comes naturally, with understanding.
  • On the other hand, “Yam samādanam tam vatam”, means observing the five precepts or eight precepts on specific days is just a ritual, or “vata”. Such rituals are good starting points, but will be “upgraded to” Sanvara sila when one gains wisdom (paññā).

13. Another key word is sansāra or samsāra, which means “rebirth process”.

  • That of course comes from san + sāra, where “sāra” means fruitful. We do “san” willingly because we perceive them to be good (“sāra”), and thus get trapped in the rebirth process.
  • Note that sometimes it is natural to pronounce with the “m” sound; that is why it is mostly written “samsāra“; see more example in #15 below.
  • We have the wrong perception that “san” are good and fruitful. Thus one continues in the long rebirth process by doing sankhāra (and especially abhisansāra) with the wrong perception that those are fruitful.

14. A nice example to illustrate the significance of “san”, is to examine the verse that Ven. Assaji delivered to Upatissa (the lay name of Ven. Sariputta, who was a chief disciple of the Buddha):

Ye dhammā hetu pabbavā, te  san hetun Tathagatho āha, Te san ca yō nirodhō, evam vādi mahā Samanō

Te = three,   hetu = cause,  pabbava = pa +bhava or “repeated birth” (see, “Pabhassāra Citta, Radiant Mind, and Bhavanga“, nirōdha = nir+uda = stop from arising.

  • The translation is now crystal clear:

“All dhammā that give rise to the rebirth process arise due to causes arising from the three “san”s: rāga, dōsa, mōha. The Buddha has shown how to eliminate those “san”s and thus stop such dhammā from arising”

15. Knowing the correct meaning of such terms leads to clear understanding of many terms:

  • Sangāyanā = san + gāyanā (meaning recite)= recite and categorize “san” (and ways to remove them) in organizing Dhammā for passing down to future generations. The first Sangāyanā was held to systematize his teachings, just 3 months after the Parinibbāna of the Buddha.
  • Samyutta Nikāya of the Tipitaka contains suttas that explain “san“: “san” + “yutta“, with “yuatta” meaning “connected with” (it rhymes as “samyutta”). Note that most English translations refer to Samyutta Nikāya as “Connected Discourses, but do not say connected to what.
  • Sanvēga (or “samvega”) = san + vēga (meaning speed) = forceful, strong  impulses arising due to “san”.
  • Sanyōga  (or “samyoga“) = san + yōga (meaning bond) = bound together via “san”.
  • Sansindheema = san + sindheema (meaning evaporate, remove) = removing san, for example,  via the seven steps described in the Sabbāsava Sutta. This leads to nirāmisa sukha or Nibbānic bliss.
  • Sansun = san + sun (meaning destroy) = when “san” is removed (“sun” rhymes like soup) one’s mind becomes calm and serene.
  • Sancetanā = san + cetanā = defiled intentions.
  • Samphassa = san + phassa = defiled sense contact.

Over 70 Pāli words with the “san” root are given atList of “San” Words and Other Pāli Roots“.

16. We will encounter many such instances, where just by knowing what “san” is, one could immediately grasp the meaning of a certain verse. Most of these terms are easily understood in Sinhala language.

  • Contrary to popular belief, it is NOT Sanskrit that is closely related to the māgadhi language that the Buddha spoke, it is Sinhala (or Sinhalese) that is closely related to māgadhi (māgadhi= “maga” + “adhi” = Noble path).

17. Tipitaka was written in Pāli with Sinhala script; Pāli is a version of māgadhi suitable for writing down oral discourses in summary form suitable for transmission; see, “Preservation of the Dhamma“. More posts on that at, “Historical Background“.

  • Each Pāli word is packed with lot of information, and thus commentaries were written to expound the meaning of important Pāli words.
  • A good example is the key Pāli word “anicca“. In Sanskrit it is “anitya“, and this is what normally translated to English as “impermanence”. But the actual meaning of anicca is very clear when one realizes that the Pāli word “icca” (pronounced “ichcha”) means “this is what I like”. Thus anicca has the opposite meaning (“na” + “icca“) or “cannot keep it the way I like”; see, “Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta“.

18. One is bound to this world of 31 realms because one has not removed the tendency to do dasa akusala. This can be stated in various ways: one’s gati, āsava, anusaya, samyōjana, etc; see, “Conditions for the Four Stages of Nibbāna“.

  • As long as one has any types of gati, āsava, anusaya, samyōjana, one has the ability to pile up more “san” or to do dasa akusala.
  • Once one removes the strongest of the dasa akusala (and especially the 10 types of micchā ditthi), one will be able to grasp the Tilakkhana.
  • Then one’s punna kamma will become kusala kamma, leading to the four stages of Nibbāna. This is a subtle point, but is explained in simple terms in the post, “Is It Necessary for a Buddhist to Eliminate Sensual Desires?“.
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