1. “So dāna means giving and cāga means generosity, the two are different concepts.”
– They are not really two different concepts. But “cāga” or the desire give may be intensified when one realizes the unfruitful nature of worldly things.
From “Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (SN 56.11)“:
“Now this is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering.
It’s the fading away and cessation of that very same craving with nothing left over; giving it away, letting it go, releasing it, and not adhering to it.
Idaṁ kho pana, bhikkhave, dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ—
yo tassāyeva taṇhāya asesavirāganirodho cāgo paṭinissaggo mutti anālayo.”
2. “Idha, gahapati, ariyasāvako vigatamalamaccherena cetasā agāraṁ ajjhāvasati muttacāgo payatapāṇi vosaggarato yācayogo dānasaṁvibhāgarato.”
– “Macchariya” is “extreme greed.” See #5 of “Cetasika (Mental Factors)”
– “muttacāgo” is to be “released from attachments” and become generous.
– Those are two examples. It will take a long essay to fully explain. But as you learn Pali words, you will be able to glean the meanings slowly.
– The English translation there gives a good general idea.