Reply To: Is this a misunderstanding?


1. As I have explained in many posts, Four Noble Truths is the same as Paticca Samuppada. Those encompass Tilakkhana (anicca, dukkha, anatta.) None of those is known in the absence of a Buddha.

2. It is a waste of time to read any document that translates anicca as impermanence and anatta as no-self.

3. If a Tipitaka reference can be provided for the following statement, we can discuss that: “The characteristics of anicca and dukkha are known whether Buddhas arise or not.” There is no such reference!

  • Note the dukkha in the above statement cannot be taken as merely “suffering” either. Suffering is dukha. Since suffering is known to even animals, a Buddha is not needed to show us that “suffering exists.”
  • On the other hand, dukkha is “dukha + khaya.”  Without a Buddha, we will not know how to overcome that suffering, i.e., the Dukkha Sacca.