I have done several 10 day courses, satipatthana courses and a 20 day long course.
I usually do couple of courses every year, but due to the pandemic I have not done one since september 2019.
On day 5 or 6 discourse, Goenkaji explains dependent origination. The meditation aims at
breaking the link at vedana pachaya tanha. By not reacting to the vedana the tanhna does not
have to opportunity to arise which is the 3rd noble truth.
The vipassana technique is explained in depth in the Chachaka sutta MN 148 (six sets of six)
where the Buddha tells us to train and be disenchanted to the sensations.
By sitting without moving one can experience the sensation of pain dissolve and disappear,
once can witness and experience the truth of annica (all sensations are temporary).
That is my understanding, but I am sure there is a lot more to it and other experienced
meditators can shed further light.