This is a sutta with a deep meaning that needs to be translated carefully. This is why I keep saying that one needs to be careful when reading English translations of suttas.
- While existing English translations of many suttas are OK, there are exceptions like this one (and of course those to do with anicca, dukkha, anatta, etc).
The key (and starting verse) is: “Nāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sañcetanikānaṃ kammānaṃ katānaṃ upacitānaṃ appaṭisaṃveditvā byantībhāvaṃ vadāmi, tañca kho diṭṭheva dhamme upapajje vā apare vā pariyāye. Na tvevāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sañcetanikānaṃ kammānaṃ katānaṃ upacitānaṃ appaṭisaṃveditvā dukkhassantakiriyaṃ vadāmi.”
I have not had much time to think about it. But I think this is the key idea in that verse:
“Bhikkhus, as long as one does kamma without understanding “san” (how defilements are associated with their certain actions or “appaṭisaṃveditvā”), they will never be able to bring existence to an end (byantibhavama), either in this life, the next life or in any future life. Therefore, they will not be able to bring suffering to an end (dukkhassantakiriyaṃ).
When one comprehends Tilakkhana, AND becomes good at being mindful (Satipatthana), one can quickly figure out whether an action that one is about to take is a bad one. One becomes “patisamvedi” and is called “sampajanno” when one gets good at it.
– That means one can “feel” automatically whether a given action that one is about to take is a good or bad one.
This is explained in detail in “Kāyānupassanā – The Section on Habits (Sampajānapabba)“.
– It may be a good idea to read the sections before that too: “Maha Satipatthana Sutta“.
Note that there is no mention of “vipaka” in that verse. The translation is completely wrong.
y not said: “In short it says that getting rid of desire and ill-will and practicing Metta to all beings makes one an Anagami.” AND
“Of course, the first three fetters are not mentioned, i.e.they are taken as already destroyed, so this must be referring to Sakadagamis here (ABSENCE of desire and ill-will)..”
Those two statements summarize the situation:
In order to get the Anagami stage via metta bhavana, one must have comprehended Tilakkhana at least to the level of a Sotapanna (Sakadagami stage is not necessary, even though better).
– Absence of desire and lii-will need only to be suppressed while doing the metta bhavana (i.e., absent during the bhavana); if they have been removed, then one is already an Anagami.