November 21, 2021
Dhammānudhamma Paṭipatti Leads one to Nibbāna.
What Is Dhammānudhamma Paṭipatti?
1. The Pāli word dhammānudhammappaṭipatti (dhamma anudhamma paṭipatti) is the combination of three words: dhamma, anudhamma, and paṭipatti. In the previous post, we did an overview: “Dhamma – Different Meanings Depending on the Context.”
- Dhamma here is Buddha Dhamma. The “Mahāhatthipadopama Sutta (MN 28)” ends with the statement, “Yō Paṭiccasamuppādam passati, so Dhammam passati; yo Dhammaṁ passati so paṭiccasamuppādaṁ passatī”ti.” That means, “One who sees paṭicca samuppāda sees the Dhamma; one who sees the Dhamma sees paṭicca samuppāda.” To understand Buddha Dhamma, one needs to know how future suffering arises via the paṭicca samuppāda process.
- We discussed “anudhamma” briefly in the previous post. Those are other aspects (one could say, subcategories) that fall under dhamma. There are four suttas that clarify “anudhamma” at a deeper level. They are“Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.39)” through “Catutthaanudhamma Sutta (SN 22. 42)” We will discuss them below. Simply stated, “anudhamma” means “according to Dhamma” or “according to paṭicca samuppāda.”
- Paṭipatti is conduct or practice.
Therefore, the literal translation of dhammānudhammappaṭipatti is “to live according to dhamma and anudhamma.”
Requirements for the Sotapanna Stage
2. We listed the four requirements for someone to attain the Sōtapanna stage in a previous post, “Yoniso Manasikāra and Paṭicca Samuppāda.” There we discussed the first three requirements.
- The first two requirements reflect that one must hear the “previously unknown teachings of the Buddha” from a Buddha or a true disciple of a Buddha who has understood those teachings. The framework of Buddha Dhamma can be stated in three inter-related ways: Four Noble Truths, Paṭicca Samuppāda, Tilakkhana.
- The third condition (yōniso manasikāra) is to UNDERSTAND those concepts, i.e., how the suffering-filled rebirth process continues because the true nature of this world is not understood.
- The fourth condition (dhammānudhammappaṭipatti) is where that understanding becomes established permanently in mind. That happens when it becomes clear without a doubt that the word of 31 realms has the three characteristics of anicca, dukkha, anatta, and thus it is not possible to stop future suffering until stopping of the rebirth process.
Anudhamma – At Deeper Level
3. As we discussed in the previous post, “anudhamma” — at the primary level — means “moral living.” After comprehending the deeper Dhamma, one would realize that just moral living is not enough to stop suffering in future lives.
- Deeper level anudhammā are concepts related to Paṭicca Samuppāda. Tilakkhana (anicca, dukkha, anatta) are those anudhammā.
- It is important to note that “moral living” is based on mundane versions of alobha, adosa, and amoha have “hidden ignorance.” That is ignorance of Tilakkhana.
4. Anudhamma at the deeper level is discussed in a series of four suttas, as mentioned in #1 above. Following is the English translation of the “Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.39)“:
- “A bhikkhu lives by the Dhamma (Dhammānudhammappaṭipadā), after he understands what is meant by Dhamma (i.e., Paṭicca Samuppāda). Then he lives without attaching (nibbidābahulo) to rupa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa. He fully understands the real nature of rupa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa and thus he is freed from rebirth, aging, and death; he is free from sorrow, lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair; he is free from all suffering (through future rebirths).”
- The Pāli verse is in Ref. 1 below.
- The next three suttas in that series explain why a bhikkhu would not attach to (or crave) anything in this world (rupa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa)
Connection to Tilakkhana
5. The REASON why someone would not attach to (or crave) rupa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa is he has understood that they all have anicca, dukkha, anatta nature! That is explicitly stated in the three suttas of Ref. 2 through Ref. 4 below.
- “Dutiya Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.41)” states that such a bhikkhu would have seen the anicca nature of rupa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa (the five aggregates or pañcakkhandha.)
- “Tatiya Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.42)” states that such a bhikkhu would have seen the dukkha nature of rupa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa (the five aggregates or pañcakkhandha.)
- “Catuttha Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.43)” states that such a bhikkhu would have seen the anatta nature of rupa, vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa (the five aggregates or pañcakkhandha.)
Connection to the First Discourse – Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
6. We note that the Buddha is referring to the five aggregates (pañcakkhandha) above.
- Attaching to pañcakkhandha is pañcupādānakkhandha (pañca upādāna khandha). That is the root cause of future suffering.
- One would lose the craving for things in this world when he sees the dangers of such desires. As we have discussed, “this world” means rupa in this world and our mental impressions of them (vedanā, saññā, saṅkhāra, viññāṇa.) That is pañcupādānakkhandha.
- We have discussed the fact that the Buddha summarized suffering as “saṃkhittena pañcupādānakkhandhā dukkhā.” See, “Essence of Buddhism – In the First Sutta.”
- The main task in studying Buddha Dhamma is to understand the truth of the above statement. There are many ways to tackle that.
7. The purdhamma.net website is tailored to provide that understanding. I have presented it in several ways. The most recent approach started with the section, “Basic Framework of Buddha Dhamma.” Then we proceeded to the next step: “Paṭicca Samuppāda, Tilakkhana, Four Noble Truths.” This current post is in the second section.
- In those sections, we discussed Tilakkhana (anicca, dukkha, anatta) or three characteristics of this world. We can summarize them as follows: Anicca means our expectation to get rid of suffering cannot be achieved within this world. Dukkha means what we perceive to be desirable in this world leads to suffering. Anatta means “therefore, any efforts to get rid of suffering would be in vain.”
- Ignorance of Tilakkhana (avijjā) leads to unwise actions via saṅkhāra. In an 11-step process that leads to future births and, thus, the continuation of suffering. That process is Paṭicca Samuppāda. It describes how our efforts (saṅkhāra) based on avijjā WILL INEVITABLY lead to rebirth among the 31 realms. While some of those existences are mostly suffering-free, they are only temporary, AND the probability of such “good births” is very low. Most rebirths are in the suffering-filled four lowest realms (apāyās.)
Dhammānudhamma Paṭipatti Leads to Nibbāna
8. The “Naḷakalāpī Sutta (SN 12.67)” has the following verse at the end (see Ref. 5 below): “If a bhikkhu is practicing for the purpose of release from aging-and-death via losing attachment (virāgāya) and cessation (nirodhāya), he can be called a bhikkhu who is practicing in accordance with the Dhamma (dhammānudhammappaṭipanno). If through such practice a bhikkhu has lost attachment (virāgāya) and attained cessation (nirodhāya), he can be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbāna in this very life..”
1. The “Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.39)” states:
“Dhammānudhammappaṭipannassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ayam anudhammo hoti yaṁ rūpe nibbidābahulo vihareyya, vedanāya nibbidābahulo vihareyya, saññāya nibbidābahulo vihareyya, saṅkhāresu nibbidābahulo vihareyya, viññāṇe nibbidābahulo vihareyya. Yo rūpe nibbidābahulo viharanto, vedanāya … saññāya … saṅkhāresu nibbidābahulo viharanto, viññāṇe nibbidābahulo viharanto rūpaṁ parijānāti, vedanaṁ … saññaṁ … saṅkhāre … viññāṇaṁ parijānāti, so rūpaṁ parijānaṁ, vedanaṁ … saññaṁ … saṅkhāre … viññāṇaṁ parijānaṁ parimuccati rūpamhā, parimuccati vedanāya, parimuccati saññāya, parimuccati saṅkhārehi, parimuccati viññāṇamhā, parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi, parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmī”ti.
2. The “Dutiya Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.40)” states: “Dhammānudhammappaṭipannassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ayam anudhammo hoti yaṁ rūpe aniccānupassī vihareyya …pe (vedanāya … saññāya … saṅkhāresu…viññāṇe aniccānupassī) … parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmī”ti.
3. The “Tatiya Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.41)” states: “Dhammānudhammappaṭipannassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ayam anudhammo hoti yaṁ rūpe dukkhānupassī vihareyya …pe (vedanāya … saññāya … saṅkhāresu…viññāṇe dukkhānupassī)… parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmī”ti.
4. The “Catuttha Anudhamma Sutta (SN 22.42)” states (full version as in Ref.1): “Dhammānudhammappaṭipannassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ayam anudhammo hoti yaṁ rūpe anattānupassī vihareyya, vedanāya … saññāya … saṅkhāresu … viññāṇe anattānupassī vihareyya. Yo rūpe anattānupassī viharanto …pe… rūpaṁ parijānāti, vedanaṁ … saññaṁ … saṅkhāre … viññāṇaṁ parijānāti, so rūpaṁ parijānaṁ, vedanaṁ … saññaṁ … saṅkhāre … viññāṇaṁ parijānaṁ parimuccati rūpamhā, parimuccati vedanāya, parimuccati saññāya, parimuccati saṅkhārehi, parimuccati viññāṇamhā, parimuccati jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi, parimuccati dukkhasmāti vadāmī”ti.
5. The verse from the “Naḷakalāpī Sutta (SN 12.67)” : “‘Jarāmaraṇassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhu nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya dhammaṁ deseti, dhammakathiko bhikkhūti alaṁvacanāya. Jarāmaraṇassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhu nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti, dhammānudhammappaṭipanno bhikkhūti alaṁvacanāya. Jarāmaraṇassa ce, āvuso, bhikkhu nibbidā virāgā nirodhā anupādā vimutto hoti, diṭṭhadhammanibbānappatto bhikkhūti alaṁvacanāya.”
6. I have discussed only a few suttā pertaining to this subject. Some other relevant suttā are: SN 12.16, 12.67; SN 22.115, 22.116; SN 35.155; SN 51.10; SN 55.25; Ud 6.1; MN 113; AN 4.6, 4.7, 4.97; AN 7.68; AN 8.25, 8.26, 8.62, 8.70, 8.78, 8.82, AN 10.83, DN 16, DN 29.