January 6, 2018; revised October 10, 2019
1. I have seen several discussion forums discuss the verse, “viññāṇāṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ..”. Many times I have seen it be referred to as “there is controversy as to the precise meaning of this enigmatic phrase.”
- Most common translations say something like, “‘Consciousness non-manifest (sometimes as consciousness without surface), infinite, radiant all around.”
- Such incorrect translations have then led to another drastic error by saying that “anidassana viññāna” is the same as the “pabhassara citta” and even as bhavanga. All these are astonishingly wrong!
What Is Viññāṇa?
2. Viññāṇa is a central and critical concept to understand. I have started an in-depth discussion of viññāṇa in an advanced subsection of the “Living Dhamma” section: “Viññāna Aggregate.”
- In this post, I describe a meaningful translation to the verse, “viññāṇāṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ..” that is consistent with all the suttas in the Tipitaka. I would welcome any evidence to the contrary.
- Now we are getting into deep concepts. I would urge reading other related posts mentioned above first. Depending on one’s background, it may take time to grasp these concepts.
- One needs to read the posts in the subsection “Nāma & Rūpa to Nāmarūpa” of which “Viññāna Aggregate” is a part. If one does not understand those concepts, one could keep going back to earlier sections in the “Living Dhamma” section. It is designed to go from simple to profound.
What Does Anidassana Mean?
3. First, let us find the meaning of “anidassana” from the Tipitaka. The meaning of the word nidassana means an ‘illustration’ that is visible. Anidassana implies something that is not visible.
- For example, dhammā impinge on the mana indriya and give rise to mano viññāna via “manañca paṭicca dhammē ca uppajjati manōviññāṇaṃ“. Those dhammā also cannot be seen; dhammā are just energies lying below the suddhashtaka stage.
- These dhammā are, “anidassanan appatighan dhammāyatana pariyāpanna rūpan“ or “cannot be seen, cannot be touched, and can make contact only with the dhammāyatana”; see, “What are rūpa? – Dhamma are rūpa too!“.
4. In the Kakacūpama Sutta (MN 21): “..Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso āgaccheyya lākhaṃ vā haliddiṃ vā nīlaṃ vā mañjiṭṭhaṃ vā ādāya. So evaṃ vadeyya: ‘ahaṃ imasmiṃ ākāse rūpaṃ likhissāmi, rūpapātubhāvaṃ karissāmī’ti. Taṃ kiṃ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nu so puriso imasmiṃ ākāse rūpaṃ likheyya, rūpapātubhāvaṃ kareyyā”ti? “No hetaṃ, Bhante”. “Taṃ kissa hetu”? “Ayañhi, Bhante, ākāso arūpī anidassano. .”
Translated: “..Bhikkhus, a man may come along bringing off white or yellow or dark green or crimson colors, and may say: ‘I will draw shapes in the sky, I will make material shapes appear. What do you think about this, monks? Could that man draw pictures in the sky with those colors?” “No, Bhante. It is not possible to draw shapes in the empty sky that are visible, that can manifest as figures”.
5. In the “Nibbāna-The Mind Stilled” series, Venerable Katukurunde Ñāṇananda has provided more evidence that “anidassana” means “something that is not visible” or ‘something that does not manifest”; see Sermons 7 and 8 in Volume II, which is a pdf in the above link.
- However, his explanation of viññāna is critically wrong, as I explain below. That is a common mistake that I see in many current interpretations.
Viññāṇa Is More Than Consciousness
6. Even in Theravada textbooks, Viññāna is translated as “consciousness” or “awareness.” But it is much more than that. Viññāna represents much more: “our hopes and desires that we want from this world.” That is a critical point — that makes the connection between mind and matter (rūpa).
- We believe that things in this world will provide us with long-lasting happiness. Thus we do vaci and kaya sankhara to achieve them. Then, “sankhāra paccayā viññāna” leads to the cultivation of a corresponding viññāna.
- Viññāna means without ñāna. When one follows the Noble Path, one will comprehend the Three Characteristics of nature (anicca, dukkha, anatta). Then one will realize the unfruitfulness of having such false hopes, i.e., cultivate paññā.
7. That is quite clear from Paticca Samuppada: “avijjā paccayā sankhāra; sankhāra paccayā viññāna; viññāna paccayā nāmarūpa, nāmarūpa paccayā salāyatana, salāyatana paccayā phassō, phassa paccayā vēdanā, vēdanā paccayā tanhā, tanhā paccayā upādāna, upādāna paccayā bhavō, bhava paccayā jāti, jāti paccayā jarā, marana, sōka-paridēva-dukkha-dōmanassupāyasā sambhavan’ti”.
- All future suffering arises because we act with avijjā (i.e., generate abhisankhāra) to achieve pleasurable worldly things and thereby create viññāna.
Two Types of Viññāṇa
8. Each individual citta of a human— which exists only for a billionth of a second — is contaminated in 9 stages. Then it is added to the viññānakkhandha! See; “Pabhassara Citta, Radiant Mind, and Bhavanga“
- A kamma viññāna is a contaminated citta. Those arise via “sankhāra paccayā viññāna.” However, vipāka viññāna are just consciousness or “awareness”; see, “Viññāna – What It Really Means.”
- The contamination of a citta manifests in saññā and vēdanā.
- See details in “Nāma & Rūpa to Nāmarūpa“.
9. It is stated in the “Saṅgīti Sutta (Digha Nikaya 33)“: “Tividhena rūpasaṅgaho—sanidassanasappaṭighaṃ rūpam, anidassanasappaṭighaṃ rūpaṃ, anidassanaappaṭighaṃ rūpaṃ“.
Translated: “Threefold classification of rupa (matter) – visible and graspable, invisible and graspable, invisible and ungraspable.”
- Three types of rupa are sensed with the six sense faculties -five physical senses and the mana indriya.
- Those rupā detected with the mana indriya are dhamma: “manañca paṭicca dhammē ca uppajjati manōviññāṇaṃ“; see, “What are rūpa? – Dhammā are rūpa too!“.
- These are the rupa of the third kind: invisible and ungraspable (anidassan aappaṭighaṃ: “anidassan appatighan dhammāyatana pariyāpanna rūpan“; see, “What are rūpa? – Dhammā are rūpa too!“.
- Those rupā of the third kind are same as namarupa that arise due to viññāna: “Kamma Viññāna and Nāmarūpa Paricceda Ñana.”
- That is explained systematically in the subsection: “Nāma & Rūpa to Nāmarūpa.”
Viññāna Is The Link Between Mind and Matter
10. Viññāna is also the link between mind and matter, even though it is in the “nāma” or mind category” most of the time.
- In the Paṭiccasamuppāda Vibhaṅga, nāma is defined as only the first three khandha: “Tattha katamaṃ nāmaṃ? Vedanākkhandho, saññākkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho—idaṃ vuccati “nāmaṃ”. This is a clear indication that viññāna khandha does not really belong in the “nāma or mind category.”
- Even though vipaka viññāna is conclusively in the “nāma” category, kamma viññāna have energies, and thus fall into the rupa category. Sometimes viññāna is not included in the “nāma” category for this reason.
- That was pointed out in the post, “Viññāna – What It Really Means.” You may want to read that first. As pointed out in that post, kamma viññāna are different from vipaka viññāna in that kamma viññāna have energies embedded in them.
- Solid confirmation is in the Majje Sutta (AN 6.61), where the Buddha stated that nāma is at one end, rūpa is at the other end, with viññāna in the middle: “nāmaṃ kho, āvuso, eko anto, rūpaṃ dutiyo anto, viññāṇaṃ majjhe.”
Viññāna Is The Cause For Rebirth and Suffering
11. The real nature of viññāna as the cause for suffering is clearly stated in the “Dvayatānupassanāsutta (Sutta Nipata 3.12)“:
“Yaṃ kiñci dukkhaṃ sambhoti,
Natthi dukkhassa sambhavo“.
Translated: “Whatever suffering that arises, all that arises due to viññāṇa; With the not arising of viññāṇa, there is no existence with suffering.”
- That should lay to rest any arguments about viññāṇa being the same as Nibbāna, pabhassara citta, or bhavanga.
- A critical point that I have been trying to make is that when one sees such dramatic contradiction somewhere, one should be skeptical about the trustworthiness of that source. That is the only way to make progress.
Brahmanimantanika Sutta (MN 49)
12. The phrase “viññāṇāṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ..” appears in the Brahmanimantanika Sutta (Majjhima Nikaya 49). I will first provide the essential parts of the Sutta that are relevant to the meaning of this verse.
Here is the essence of the Sutta in plain English:
At one time, the Buddha saw that the following wrong view came to the mind of the Baka Brahmā (who is the leader of the Maha Brahma realm; see, “31 Realms of Existence“): “My existence is permanent, it is stable, it is eternal, and is not liable to passing away”.
To correct the wrong view of the Baka Brahmā, vanishing from near the great sāl-tree in the Subhaga Grove at Ukkaṭṭhā, the Buddha appeared in that Brahma-world.
Baka Brahmā saw the Buddha coming, welcomed him, and told him: “Idañhi, mārisa, niccaṃ, idaṃ dhuvaṃ, idaṃ sassataṃ, idaṃ kevalaṃ, idaṃ acavanadhammaṃ, idañhi na jāyati na jīyati na mīyati na cavati na upapajjati. Ito ca panaññaṃ uttari nissaraṇaṃ natthī’ti.“
Translated: “This existence, good sir, can be maintained to my liking, it is stable, it is eternal. It encompasses all, not liable to passing away, IT is not born, nor does it age or die or to pass away or uprise. There is no further release from this existence”.
The Buddha replied: “You are ignorant. You say your existence can be to your liking, but that is not so. It is not permanent as you say…” (yatra hi nāma aniccaṃyeva samānaṃ niccanti vakkhati, addhuvaṃyeva samānaṃ dhuvanti vakkhati).
- By the way, here it is important to note that the Pali word for “permanent” is “dhuva,” and not “nicca.”
The Buddha added, “..although you say there is no further release, there is indeed a permanent release” (“santañca panaññaṃ uttari nissaraṇaṃ “natthaññaṃ uttari nissaraṇan” ti vakkhatī’ti.”
- Then there is an account of how Māra the deva, having entered a particular company of Brahmas, spoke to encourage the Brahma. I will skip that account, to get to the crux of the matter.
Baka Brahmā then replied to the Buddha: ‘But, good sir, I say “nicca” because it is so, I say “stable” because it is stable, I say “eternal” because it is eternal. There is no more suffering,…I have escaped from the cravings for patavi, apo, tejo, vayo dhatu..”. (Meaning he has overcome tanha for sensual pleasures available in the kāma loka comprised from the four mahā dhatu).
The Buddha told the Baka Brahma that indeed he knew that the Baka Brahma had transcended the kāma loka, and was fully aware of his powers. The Buddha added that there were things in this world that the Brahma was not aware of. (1) There are higher Brahma realms, (2) Baka Brahma himself was in the Abhassara Brahma realm, died there and was now reborn in this lower Brahma realm. The Buddha told the Baka Brahma: “you neither know nor see those higher realms, but I know and see them.”
Here is the relevant part of the Sutta where the Buddha tells Baka Brahma: ”Pathaviṃ kho ahaṃ, brahme, pathavito abhiññāya yāvatā pathaviyā pathavattena ananubhūtaṃ tadabhiññāya pathaviṃ nāpahosiṃ, pathaviyā nāpahosiṃ, pathavito nāpahosiṃ, pathaviṃ meti nāpahosiṃ, pathaviṃ nābhivadiṃ…”
Translated: Brahma, knowing patavi to be just patavi (devoid of life), knowing the true nature of patavi, I do not take patavi to be me. (No attachment to things in the kāma loka made out of the four mahā bhuta)”.
- Then he repeated the same verse for the other three mahā bhuta of which the bodies of beings in kāma loka are made of apo, tejo, vayo.
Finally, he summarized it all in the following verse, which we discussed in the post “Pabhassara Citta, Radiant Mind, and Bhavanga“: “Viññāṇaṃ anidassanaṃ anantaṃ sabbato pabhaṃ, taṃ pathaviyā pathavattenaananubhūtaṃ, āpassa āpattena ananubhūtaṃ, tejassa tejattena ananubhūtaṃ, vāyassavāyattena ananubhūtaṃ, bhūtānaṃ bhūtattena ananubhūtaṃ, devānaṃ devattenaananubhūtaṃ, pajāpatissa pajāpatittena ananubhūtaṃ, brahmānaṃ brahmattenaananubhūtaṃ, ābhassarānaṃ ābhassarattena ananubhūtaṃ, subhakiṇhānaṃ subhakiṇhānaṃ subhakiṇhattena ananubhūtaṃ, vehapphalānaṃ vehapphalattena ananubhūtaṃ, abhibhussa abhibhuttena ananubhūtaṃ, sabbassa sabbattena ananubhūtaṃ.”.
Translated: “Viññāna is unseen, infinite, and leads to the rebirth process for all. With viññāna (defiled consciousness), one cannot comprehend the real nature of patavi, āpo, tējo, vāyo, bhūta, deva, pajapti brahma, abhassara brahma, subhakinha brahma, vehapphala brahma, etc., i.e., everything in this world (sabba)”.
Then, the Buddha concluded: “Thus Brahmā, I am not merely on an exact equality with you as regards super-knowledge; I am indeed higher in knowledge.”
Then the Brahma challenged the Buddha, saying that he is going to disappear and If the Buddha is of higher knowledge, try to find him. But he was unable to hide from the Buddha.
Then the Buddha said, “‘Now I am vanishing from you, Brahmā. Find me if you can”. Of course, the Brahma was unable to find the Buddha and thus had to concede defeat.
That is the essence of that long sutta, that is relevant for this discussion.
There Is No Refuge In Any of The Thirty One Realms
13. We have to realize that indeed the Maha Brahmas has a very long lifetime of a quarter of the age of our universe (several billion years).
- Furthermore, since Brahmas do not have solid bodies like ours, they are not subject to diseases or bodily pains. So, they live a peaceful life until the end of their bhava. So it is no surprise that the Baka Brahma thought that he had overcome all suffering by getting rid of the human body. See the post on “Body Types in 31 Realms – Importance of Manomaya Kaya” for details on bodies of beings in other realms.
- Of course, Brahmas can still have future births in the apāyas. Unless they had attained at least the Sotapanna stage of Nibbāna, they have only suppressed kāma rāga, and have not removed any of the ten samyojana.
- That should give us a lot to think about our suffering-causing body that lasts only about 100 years! There is absolutely nothing to be proud of one’s physical body or to feel that it is worthwhile to take this foul body to be “mine.” That is one way to get rid of sakkaya ditthi.
- The question is not whether there is a “self” or not. Is it wise to think that it is worthwhile to have the perception of a “self”? The wrong perception of a “self” only leads to immoral actions and thus suffering in future lives.
14. I hope this post — together with the other posts in this subsection — make it clear what viññāṇa is, and what is meant by the famous verse, “viññāṇāṁ anidassanaṁ anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ..”
- Please make any comments/suggestions/criticisms in the discussion forum, so that everyone can benefit from the discussion.