April 2, 2017
1. This important post will help make the connection between deeper teaching of the Buddha Dhamma (anicca, dukkha, anatta) and the practice, i.e., cleansing one’s mind via abstaining from dasa akusala and cultivating dasa kusala.
- The Tilakkhana represent the “theory side” or the “nature of this world” and dasa akusala are associated with the practice. Thus the connection between the two is important.
- I have not seen this addressed directly before outside the Tipitaka.
2. We discussed in the previous post, “Anatta – the Opposite of Which Atta?“, why the Pali words “atta/anatta” do not convey “self/no-self” but rather “with essence/no essence” or “truth/untruth” or “useful/not useful” or “protected/helpless”.
- We also discussed how “atta/anatta” are closely related to Sinhala/Sanskrit words “artha/anartha” also giving the meanings “truth/untruth” or “useful/not useful”.
- Finally, we touched on the fact that the anatta (and thus dukkha and anatta) nature is a manifestation of engaging in dasa akusala.
3. Recently I realized that many suttas in the Anguttara Nikaya (AN) express various concepts in brief. Many suttas are just a paragraph, providing the key idea.
- Here we will discuss three short suttas in the Anguttara Nikaya that can be used to clarify the connection between dasa akusala and Tilakkhana.
4. First, the Kusala Sutta (AN 180; in the Sadhuvagga) is just one paragraph providing the definition of dasa akusala:
- “..katamanca bhikkhave, akusalam? panatipatö, adinnädänaṃ, kämesumicchacärö, musävädö, pisuṇä väcä, parusä vacä, samphappaläpö, abhijjhä, vyäpädö, micchädiṭṭhi akusalaṃ..”
- Conventionally translated: “killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, slandering, harsh talk, empty talk, greed, hate, and wrong views”. These are discussed in “Ten Immoral Actions (Dasa Akusala)“.
- In the next and last paragraph of the sutta, dasa kusala are defined as the opposites of dasa akusala (veramani means “abstain from”): “..katamanca bhikkhave, kusalam? panatipatä veramani, adinnädänä veramani, kämesumicchacärä veramani, musävädä veramani, pisuṇä väcä veramani, parusä vacä veramani, samphappaläpä veramani, abhijjhä veramani, vyäpäda veramani, sammaädiṭṭhi kusalaṃ ‘ti.
- Therefore, kusala and akusala are stated clearly and succinctly in that sutta.
5. Then in the very next sutta, Attha Sutta (AN 181; in the Sadhuvagga) anattä is defined in terms of dasa akusala:
- “..katamo ca bhikkhave, anattö? panatipatö, adinnädänaṃ, kämesumicchacärö, musävädö, pisuṇä väcä, parusä vacä, samphappaläpö, abhijjhä, vyäpädö, micchädiṭṭhi – ayam vuccati, bhikkhave, anattö..”
- Thus one becomes anatta (helpless) by engaging in dasa akusala.
- In the next and last paragraph of the sutta, atta defined as the opposite of that: panatipatä veramani, adinnädänä veramani, kämesumicchacärä veramani, musävädä veramani, pisuṇä väcä veramani, parusä vacä veramani, samphappaläpä veramani, abhijjhä veramani, vyäpäda veramani, sammaädiṭṭhi – ayam vuccati, bhikkhave, attö. ‘ti.
- Thus one becomes atta (leading to refuge in Nibbana) by engaging in dasa kusala.
6. Those two short suttas make it crystal clear the following important facts:
- Anatta has nothing to do with a “self”.
- Anatta is all about being helpless in the rebirth process due to one’s engagements with dasa akusala.
- Therefore, getting to Nibbana is all about avoiding dasa akusala, i.e., cleansing one’s mind.
7. Now, there are several suttas in the Anguttara Nikaya that put it all together. The first verse in the Patama Adhamma Sutta states (AN 10.113 in the Paccorohanivagga) it nicely:
- “Adhammo ca, bhikkhave, veditabbo anattho ca; dhammo ca veditabbo attho ca“.
- I will write another post explaining other verses in that sutta, but we can easily translate that verse: “Bhikkhus, it is to be comprehended that adhamma leads to anattä (helplessness), and dhamma leads to attä (refuge in Nibbana)”.
- Furthermore, those who are still clinging to the incorrect interpretation of “anatta” as “no self“, should be able to clearly see that it leads to the foolish statement: “Bhikkhus, it is to be comprehended that adhamma leads to no-self, and dhamma leads to self“.
- The root cause of this misinterpretation is explained in, “Answers to Criticism of Pure Dhamma Interpretations“.
8. Dhamma is what one bears, i.e., what principles one lives by. But it is normally used in the sense of “good dhamma“.
- Adhamma is the opposite: immoral living. If one engages in dasa akusala, then one is engaging in adhamma, i.e., one bears adhamma.
- This can be compared to the following: We use the word “smell” normally to mean “bad smell”. We specifically say “good smell” to indicate an actual good smell.
- In the same way, dhamma can be good or bad (“what one bears”). However, we normally use the word dhamma to indicate good dhamma. Bad dhamma are adhamma.
9. When one examines carefully ANY sutta in the Tipitaka they will be consistent with the above explanation.
- It is clear that those three suttas make the key connection between the deeper Tilakkhana (“theory”) and the practice (cleansing the mind via sila, i.e., staying away from dasa akusala). We don’t need to analyze hundreds of suttas to see the connection.
- When I go to online discussion boards, I get totally confused. People just quote suttas from different sites, and normally they have incorrect meanings of key Pali words. It is a waste of time to read all those long posts providing “evidence” from different places, and of course there are usually inconsistencies among them.
- This was a major reason that I decided to start this website, because I can show that everything is consistent if one uses the true meanings of key Pali words.
10. It is also good to keep in mind that a major problem with many texts is that they take conventional meanings of key words and apply them in the wrong places.
- Unless one is clear about the true meanings of such key words, and know where to use a given meaning, it is easy to veer-off in a totally wrong direction; see, “Pali Dictionaries – Are They Reliable?“. Also see, “Buddha Dhamma: Non-Perceivability and Self-Consistency“.
11. In the previous post, “Anatta – the Opposite of Which Atta?“, we briefly mentioned that anatta is closely related to dasa akusala. I hope the connection is much more clear now.
- Engaging in dasa akusala can only lead to suffering and thus helplessness in the long run. Therefore, engaging in actions, speech, thoughts associated with dasa akusala are not only pointless but also dangerous.
- This idea is quite clear in the Sinhala word for anattä: “anärtha” that we discussed in that previous post. It literally means “doing things that are totally useless and can only bring harm”.
12. Those who believe that doing dasa akusala can bring “bad vipaka” only in future lives are mistaken. Many people do not realize that even having immoral thoughts can bring us stress in this life itself.
This was discussed in detail in the beginning posts in the “Living Dhamma” section. That section is important in two aspects:
- When one starts abstaining from dasa akusala, one can experience a definite sense of relief — also called niramisa sukha — and that should be the initial focus.
- When one starts experiencing this niramisa sukha, one also starts comprehending deeper aspects of Dhamma like the anicca and anatta nature. Only with those insights that one can actually start to “see” the long-term kamma vipaka due to dasa akusala — like those leading to births in the apayas (lowest four realms).
13. Finally, note that atta is sometimes spelled out as “attha” (with an “h”) in many texts and each may imply mundane or deeper meaning. For example, the old Sinhala commentaries are called “atthakathä“. It means “accounts about the truth” (“kathä” means “story”).
- Those are the reliable commentaries in the Tipitaka: Patisambhidamagga, Petakopadesa, and Nettippakarana. Out of many Sinhala atthakathä, those three are the only ones that survived.
- On the other hand, commentaries by Buddhaghosa and others are do not belong to atthakathä. Visuddhimagga is one such popular but erroneous commentary.
14. Finally, we can now see the truth in the verse, “Dhammö ca yathä Dhammö, yathä attö” that is also in the Patama Adhamma Sutta of #7 above.
- That means, “when one bears true (yathä) Dhamma, one comprehends the truth (and avoids being helpless in future)”.
- If one bears dhamma and stays away from adhamma, that will help one grasp the Tilakkhana. Then one will not become anattä or helpless in this rebirth process. One will have “attä” or refuge.
- This is an important post which provides a simple but critical link between “theory and practice”. It is good idea to read those relevant other posts and come back and re-read this post, until this connection is grasped.
- This basic idea can go a long way in comprehending Tilakkhana.